Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Midwifery, Reproductive Health Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

3 Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran and Midwifery Department, Emam Sajad Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Shahriar, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Midwifery, Shohada Hospital, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran

5 Department of Midwifery, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran


BACKGROUND: One of the useful models in health education is the Beliefs, Attitudes, Subjective
Norms, and Enabling Factors (BASNEF) model. The model is used to study behavior and to plan
for change it and to determine the factors that influence people’s decision‑making. The aim of this
study was to investigate the factors affecting the nutritional behavior of pregnant women based on
BASNEF model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross‑sectional study was performed on 360 pregnant women
referring to health centers of Tabriz‑Iran by two‑stage cluster sampling method from April to December
2016. Data were collected using sociodemographic, nutrition subdomain of Health Promoting
Lifestyle‑II (HPLP‑II), and researcher‑made questionnaire based on constructs of BASNEF model.
Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 21 and Pearson correlation test and General
Linear Model (GLM).
RESULTS: Mean ± standard deviation (SD) of nutrition subdomain of HPLP‑II was 24.65 ± 4.75
within the range 9–36. Mean ± SD of BASNEF model constructs (score range) was also obtained
as 45.30 ± 10.80 (0–100), 17.98 ± 2.40 (8–24), 9.30 ± 2.82 (0–20) and 2.47 ± 1.74 (0–6) for belief,
attitude, subjective norms, and enabling factors, respectively. Based on the GLM, there was significant
relationships between nutritional behavior and BASNEF model constructs (belief [P < 0.001],
attitude [P = 0.043], enabling factors [P < 0.001], and subjective norms [P = 0.038]) as well as the
variables of job, husband’s education, and job and sufficiency of income for expenses.
CONCLUSION: The results of the present study showed the impact of BASNEF model constructs
and some sociodemographic variables on nutrition behaviors in pregnant women. Therefore, in order
to improve nutrition behaviors of pregnant women, designing and implementation of interventions
based on the BASNEF model are recommended.


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