Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Orthopedy, Kashani Hospital and Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

2 Nurse of Kashani Hospital, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

3 Department of Operating Room, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

4 Social Determinants of Health Research Center , School of Health, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord , Iran


BACGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) has been regarded as one of the musculoskeletal problems
which is affecting more than three‑quarters of individuals in their lifetime. Nowadays, various
pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies are employed for relieving and treating LBP. This
study was conducted to compare the effects of topical hot salt and hot sand on patients’ perception
of LBP.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this, quasi‑experimental study patients with LBP referring to the
orthopedic clinic of Shahrekord educational hospital were divided randomly into two interventions and
one control group in 2020. All three groups were received naproxen cream and daily physiotherapy
in the same manner, the interventional groups in addition either topical hot salt or topical hot sand.
Data gathering tool for measuring patients’ perception of LBP was the McGill Pain Short Form
Questionnaire to be completed at the beginning, immediately at the end, and 2 months after the
intervention. The data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software (version 21.0).
RESULTS: Totally, 90 patients were randomized based on the table of random numbers (mean age
51.1 + 11.1), and finally, 87 patients completed the study. Patients’ perception of LBP before the
intervention was homogenous in hot salt, hot sand, and the control group The mean score of total
pain experience before the intervention was 14.1 ± 11.3 for hot sand, 13.9 ± 10.7 for hot salt and
13.7 ± 10.1 for control group The mean scores of these three groups were not significant before the
intervention (P > 0.05). The mean score of total pain experience immediately after the intervention
was 6.7 ± 4.2 for hot sand, 5.2 ± 3.1 for hot salt and 13.9 ± 9.8 for control group. The mean scores
of the hot sand group and the hot salt group were significantly decreased compared with control
group (P > 0.05). The mean score of total pain experience two months after the intervention was
5.6 ± 3.27 for hot sand, 4.21 ± 2.14 for hot salt and 13.8 ± 10.4 for control group. Mean score of total
pain experience in both intervention groups had significantly reduced two months after the intervention
compared to control group (P ≤ 0.001); so that the effect of hot salt treatment on reducing total
pain experience was larger than hot sand (P ≤ 0.001). The same trend was observed for VAS and
Present pain intensity variables.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings have revealed that the topical treatments with hot salt and hot sand
could have a significant effect on the perception of LBP compared to those in the control group;
whereas hot salt might be stronger effects than hot sand on reducing LBP.


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