Document Type : Original Article



BACKGROUND: Social distancing policy during the COVID‑19 pandemic may affect physical activity
levels. This study aimed to compare physical activity levels before and during the pandemic and to
explore physical activity correlates among Indonesian young adults.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This longitudinal study was conducted before the pandemic (n = 141)
in September 2019 and was followed by an online follow‑up survey during the pandemic
(79% response rate) in September 2020. Physical activity was measured using the global physical
activity questionnaire and was classified into “sufficient” and “insufficient.” The potential correlates
of physical activity were constructs from social‑cognitive theory and health belief model. Those were
measured using a validated questionnaire in the follow‑up survey. Physical activity levels before and
during pandemics were compared using the Wilcoxon signed‑rank test. Simple logistic regressions
were used to assess the relationships between each potential correlate and physical activity status
during the pandemic.
RESULTS: Physical activity levels decreased significantly during the pandemic, mostly in the
work‑related domain. Participants with favorable physical activity‑related constructs were more likely
to be physically active. The odds ratio ranged from 3.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15–10.11)
in participants with higher self‑efficacy to 4.50 (95% CI = 1.44–14.06) in those with higher outcome
expectations of physical activity.
CONCLUSION: A significant decline in physical activity during the COVID‑19 pandemic among
Indonesian young adults was confirmed. The application of behavioral change theories for explaining
physical activity status during the pandemic in this population is also supported. It is recommended
to incorporate these constructs to develop physical activity interventions in this target population.


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