Document Type : Original Article


Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the underlying medical conditions that
put children at increased risk for coronavirus. This study aimed to predict preventive behaviors of
COVID‑19 among children with CHD based on the protection motivation theory (PMT).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross‑sectional study was conducted from March 2021 to April
2021, on 240 children 3–7 years with CHD whose data had been registered in Persian Registry of
Cardiovascular Disease/CHD (PROVE/CHD) System in Isfahan, Iran. The research variables were
measured using an online researcher‑made questionnaire that was based on PMT constructs. The
collected data were analyzed using statistical tests (e.g., Pearson correlation coefficient and linear
regression analysis).
RESULTS: From a total of 240 participants (mean age of 4.81 ± 1.50) in the present study, 122 (50.8%)
were girls. The most common types of CHD among children participating in this study were related
to atrial septal defect (ASD) (29.2%, n = 70) and ventricular septal defect (VSD) (26.7%, n = 64),
respectively. Protective behaviors showed a significant correlation with all constructs of PMT. The
PMT constructs explained 41.0% of the variances in protective behavior, in which the perceived
reward (β = 0.325) and perceived self‑efficacy (β = 0.192) was the most important, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed well the effectiveness of PMT on the preventive
behaviors of COVID‑19 in children with CHD. This theory can be used to teach preventive behaviors
of COVID‑19 to children with CHD in education programs.


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