Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Students’ Research Committee, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

2 Department of Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

3 Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

4 Department of disaster health, School of Management and Medical Informatics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran


BACKGROUND: Dried Urmia Lake in the northwest of Iran is a major regional source of sodium
and toxic metal aerosols which may cause numerous health problems. The aim of this study was to
evaluate iron‑deficiency anemia (IDA) and some related risk factors among women of reproductive
age in the suburb of dried Urmia Lake to provide the information about the problem to the health‑care
METHODS: This cross‑sectional study was conducted on 278 healthy nonpregnant, nonlactating
women aged 18–45 years, living in the rural area of the Salmas city, closest to the Urmia Lake between
February and June 2017. The study participants were selected using a stratified random sampling
method with proportional allocation from seven villages. A general questionnaire was completed for
each participant to collect sociodemographic information and a 3‑day dietary recall questionnaire
to obtain daily dietary intakes. IDA was defined as a hemoglobin (Hb) level of <12 g/dl and ferritin
concentration of <15 μg/l. Spearman’s correlation coefficient and Fisher’s exact test were applied to
determine sociodemographic factors associated with the serum Hb and ferritin levels.
RESULTS: The prevalence of overall anemia (Hb <12 g/dl) was 7.9%. IDA was determined in 4.3%
and iron deficiency (ID) in 19.1% (serum ferritin <15 μg/l) of the participants. There was a significant
positive correlation between serum Hb concentrations and the mean daily intakes of protein and
iron (P < 0.001). Similarly, a significant positive correlation was observed between serum ferritin
levels and body mass index (P < 0.001). Significant inverse associations were found between Hb
concentrations and the number of pregnancies and children (P < 0.001), as well as the number of
family members (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated a mild prevalence of IDA and a relatively high rate of ID among
studied participants. Educational programs are needed to improve nutritional habits as well as the
use of contraceptives to promote women’s health.


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