Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Iranian women. The number of people
with this disease is increasing across the world. Positive family history is one of the risk factors for
developing breast cancer. However, early detection is the main method to fight this disease. This
study was conducted to examine the effect of education based on the health belief model (HBM) on
self‑care behaviors among first‑degree relatives of patients with breast cancer.
METHODS: This clinical trial was conducted in 2016 on 80 women in Tehran city, Iran. Data were
collected using a three‑part questionnaire regarding demographic data, the HBM, and self‑care
behaviors. The educational program based on the HBM was held in 4 ninety‑minute training sessions
through lectures, group discussions, question and answer, image presentations, and PowerPoint
presentations. The questionnaires were completed before and 2 months following the intervention
by intervention and control groups. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics
through the SPSS16 software.
RESULTS: The mean score of the HBM constructs before the intervention in the groups had no
statistically significant differences (P > 0.05). Eight weeks after the intervention, the mean score of the
constructs of the HBM in the intervention group significantly increased and a statistically significant
increase in the mean score of self‑care in the intervention group compared to the preintervention
was found, so that the self‑care behavior score in the intervention group was 0.69 ± 0.09 before the
intervention and was changed to 0.74 ± 0.09 after the intervention (P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that education based on the HBM was effective in promoting
self‑care behaviors among first‑degree relatives of breast cancer patients. Therefore, education
based on HBM may have an important implication for breast cancer prevention in Iran.


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