Document Type : Original Article



INTRODUCTION: The use of ionizing radiation in various sciences, especially in medical science, has
played an important role in human health. As the use of radiology tests in medical centers, including
the operating room ward, is increasing, increasing the level of awareness of the operating room staff
can improve their performance in this area as well as reduce the risk of exposure to radiation. The
aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and performance of surgical technologists about
radiation protection in Zahedan educational hospitals.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study is a descriptive‑analytical study that was performed
on 80 surgical technologists of Zahedan teaching hospitals from January 2019 to December 2019.
The Knowledge Questionnaire was used in this study, which was a researcher‑made questionnaire.
After filling out questionnaires and checklists, the data were analyzed by SPSS software using
descriptive statistics and analytical, statistical tests, including independent t‑test and Pearson
correlation coefficient.
RESULTS: The results showed that the mean age of participants was 31 ± 7.03 years . 27% were men,
and 53% were women. The mean of work experience was 7 ± 7.56. The mean score of knowledge
was 6 ± 3.02 and the performance score was 12 ± 7.38. There was a correlation between age,
awareness and performance of the participants (P < 0.001), and there was a correlation between
participants’ radiation protection training and awareness and performance (P = 0.000). There is a
direct relationship between staff knowledge and performance. No significant relationship was found
between the other variables (P = 0.029).
CONCLUSION: The results of the study showed that there is a relationship between radiation
protection training courses so that the personnel who passed these courses are more aware and
functioning. Given that action is needed to raise awareness through workshops.


  1. Kashian E, Zarifi S, Akbarzadeh F. Evaluation of radiation
    protection principles observance in radiology departments
    of Semnan University of medical sciences. Iran J Med Phys
    2. Dasan TA, KoratagereRS, Rangaswamy NB. Interns, postgraduate
    residents and non radiologist doctors awareness about ionizing
    radiation in diagnostic imaging investigations in a tertiary
    hospital, Bengaluru. Int J Anat Radiol Surg 2017;6:9‑11.
    3. Mirdoraghi M, Fatahi Asl J, Fatahi Asl JJ, Health M. Evaluation of
    radiation protection condition in educational hospital radiological
    centers of Ahwaz University Med Sci 2017;11:1‑8.
    4. GangulyA, Karim R. Essential Physics for Radiology and Imaging.
    Academic Publishers; 2016.
    5. Bazrafshan E, Mohamadi JL, Naroei K, Parvaneh H,
    Mohamadrigi F. Survey of Health and Protection Status of
    Radiology Centers Covered by Zahedan University of Medical
    Sciences During 2010‑2011; 2012.
    6. Chaparian A, Shamsi F, Heydari A. Assessment of awareness,
    attitude, and practice of radiographers about radiation protection
    in Yazd Province. Occupational Medicine Quarterly Journal
    7. Garribba M, Energy DG, Garribba DD. International Commission
    on Radiological Protection; 2017.
    8. Babaloui S, Parwaie W, Refahi S, Abrazeh M, Ardekani MA.
    Awareness Assessment of Nurses in the OR, ICU, CCU, and PICU
    about radiation protection principles of portable radiography in
    hospitals of Bandar Abbas. Iran 2018;37:126‑9.
    9. Hobbs JB, Goldstein N, Lind KE, Elder D, Dodd GD 3rd,
    Borgstede JP. Physician knowledge of radiation exposure and
    risk in medical imaging. J Am Coll Radiol 2018;15:34‑43.
    10. SafaviM, ShoushtarianSM, FesharakiM, Ansari MJMSJoIAU‑TMB.
    Comparing radiation receiving dose at 50 Cm distance of
    the source of radiation and nearby room during fluoroscopic
    percutaneous nephrolithotomy. medical science journal of Islamic
    azad university Tehran branch. 2015;25:55‑8.
    11. Agarwal AJ. Radiation risk in orthopedic surgery: Ways to protect
    yourself and the patient. operative techniques in sports medicine
    12. Karami A, Ghaderi S, Moradiyan S, Mostafaee S, Gharibi F,
    Elahimanesh F. Evaluation of level of knowledge, attitude and
    performance of Radiologists in Sanandaj city regarding radiation
    protection in 2014. J Sci J Nurs Midwifery Paramed Faculty
    13. Mulconrey DS. Fluoroscopic radiation exposure in spinal surgery:
    In vivo evaluation for operating room personnel. Clin Spine Surg
    14. Groover MT, Hinkley JR, Gerow DE, Bamberger HB, Evans J,
    Gazaille RE. The Effect of Metal Instrumentation on Patient and
    Surgical Team Scatter Radiation Exposure Using Mini C‑Arm in
    a Simulated Forearm Fracture Fixation Model. J Am Acad Orthop
    Surg Glob Res Rev 2019;3:e089.
    15. Heydari A, Ghazi KS, Salehi I, Sharafi A, Rostampour N.
    Evaluation of Radiation Dose Received by Operating Room
    Personnel During Radiological Procedures; 2011.
    16. Sahin E, Kara C, Resorlu B, Sönmez MG, Ünsal A. Radiation
    exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy; Is there a risk of
    the patient and the operating team? Int J Radiat Res 2018;16:133‑8.
    17. Mahajan A, Samuel S, Saran AK, Mahajan MK, Mam MK.
    Occupational radiation exposure from C arm fluoroscopy during
    common orthopaedic surgical procedures and its prevention.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2015;9:RC01‑4.
    18. Shafi H, Qaymyan N, Amani N, Bijani S, Kamali AS. Evaluation of
    Nurses’awareness of Principles of Radiation Protection in Shahid
    Behesti Hospital; 2016.
  2. 19. Moshfegh S, Hasanzadeh H, Jadidi M, Mirmohammadkhani M,
    Bitarafan‑Rajabi A, Emadi A, et al. Assessment of knowledge,
    attitude and practice of operating room personnels in
    selected hospitals of Iran about radiation protection. Koomesh
    20. Briggs‑Kamara MA, Okoye PC, Omubo‑Pepple VB. Radiation
    safety awareness among patients and radiographers in three
    hospitals in Port Harcourt . Am J Sci Ind Res. 2013;4(1):83.
    21. Tohidniya MR, Amiri F, Khoshgard K, Hormozi Moghadam ZJ.
    Evaluation of the observance of radiation protection principles in
    intensive care units at imam reza hospital of Kermanshah. Journal
    of Payavard Salamat. 2017 Mar 15;10(6):470‑8.
    22. Tok A, Akbas A, Aytan N, Aliskan T, Cicekbilek I, Kaba M, et al.
    Are the urology operating room personnel aware about the
    ionizing radiation? Int Braz J Urol 2015;41:982‑9.
    23. Dadsetadi Asl A, Bakhshian M, Banaei A, Cheraghi MR,
    Barkhordari M. Assessment the radiation protection knowledge,
    attitude and performance of radiology technologists in Tehran
    military hospitals and their relationship with age, sex, level of
    education and work experience. Paramed Sci Military Health
    24. Davoudian Talab A, Badiee Nejad A, Beit Abdollah M,
    Mahmoudi F, Barafrashtehpour M, Akbari G. Assessment of
    awareness, performance, and attitudes of radiographers toward
    radiological protective principles in Khuzestan, Irangraphers.
    J Health Res Commun 2015;1:16‑24.
    25. Karami A, ghaderi S, moradiyan S, mostafaee S, Gharibi F,
    Elahimanesh F. Evaluation of level of knowledge, attitude and
    performance of Radiologists in Sanandaj city regarding radiation
    protection in 2014. SJNMP 2017;2:24‑32.