Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Anesthesiology, Anesthesiology Research Center, School of Medicine, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Health Information Technology, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran

3 School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


BACKGROUND: Designing information systems will increase the efficiency and effectiveness of
the system according to the information needs of the stakeholders. The present study examined the
effective features of designing the information system of medicinal plants from the perspective of its
users as a prerequisite for the design of this system.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This applied research was carried out using survey method and
a researcher‑made questionnaire. The study population consisted of two groups of information
users (faculty members, students, and researchers of medicinal plants) and information
disseminators (librarians), and 308 individuals were selected by cluster sampling from five universities.
Data analysis was performed using descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS software
version 22.
RESULTS: The results showed that in view of the two groups of users, there was a significant
difference in the search options in the database of medicinal plants and the displaying characteristics
of the search results. On an average, the rank of the two groups in these two domains was largely
different. In other cases, the users considered shared features for capabilities and facilities in an
information system of medicinal plants.
CONCLUSION: According to the results, for obtaining the information system of medicinal herbs
with better capabilities and facilities, it is essential for designers to pay attention to all elements and
objections in the interaction of the human and the system, especially in the field of search.


1. Wang X, Zhang J, He S, Gao Y, Ma X, Gao Y, et al. HMOD:
An Omics database for herbal medicine plants. Mol Plant
2. Gupta PC. Biological and pharmacological properties of Terminalia
chebula Retz.(Haritaki)‑An overview. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci
2012;4 Suppl 3:62‑8.
3. Lu LM, Mao LF, Yang T, Ye JF, Liu B, Li HL, et al. Evolutionary
history of the angiosperm flora of China. Nature 2018;554:234‑8.
4. Camargo MC, Barros RM, Barros VT. Visual design checklist for
graphical user interface (GUI) evaluation. In: Proceedings of the
33rd Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing. ACM;
2018. p. 670‑2.
5. Kumar A, Kumar R, Sharma M, Kumar U, Gajula MN, Singh K.
Uttarakhand Medicinal Plants Database (UMPDB): A platform
for exploring genomic, chemical, and traditional knowledge. Data
6. Ru J, Li P, Wang J, Zhou W, Li B, Huang C, et al. TCMSP: A
database of systems pharmacology for drug discovery from herbal
medicines. J Cheminform 2014;6:13.
7. Mouakket S, Bettayeb AM. Investigating the factors influencing
continuance usage intention of Learning management systems
by university instructors: The Blackboard system case. Int J Web
Informat Syst 2015;11:491‑509.
8. Latief M, Kandowangko N, Yusuf R. Designing Web Database
Application for Local Medicinal Plants of Gorontalo Using MVC
Architecture. IOP Conf Series Mater Sci Eng 2018;288:12098.
9. Saini GS, Dubey SK, Bharti SK. A reliable novel framework of
user‑oriented software engineering. In: Ambient Communications
and Computer Systems. Singapore: Springer; 2019. p. 237‑45.
10. Jordan SA, Cunningham DG, Marles RJ. Assessment of herbal
medicinal products: Challenges, and opportunities to increase the
knowledge base for safety assessment. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol
11. Yanuar A, Mun’im A, Lagho AB, Syahdi RR, Rahmat M,
Suhartanto H. Medicinal plants database and three dimensional
structure of the chemical compounds from medicinal plants in
Indonesia. arXiv preprint arXiv: 1111.7183; 2011.
12. Lamesch P, Berardini TZ, Li D, Swarbreck D, Wilks C,
Sasidharan R, et al. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR):
Improved gene annotation and new tools. Nucleic Acids Res
13. Catarino S, Duarte MC, Costa E, Carrero PG, Romeiras MM.
Conservation and sustainable use of the medicinal Leguminosae
plants from Angola. PeerJ 2019;7:e6736.
14. Chen SL, Yu H, Luo HM, Wu Q, Li CF, Steinmetz A. Conservation
and sustainable use of medicinal plants: Problems, progress, and
prospects. Chin Med 2016;11:37.
15. Bai G, Zhang T, Hou Y, Ding G, Jiang M, Luo G. From quality
markers to data mining and intelligence assessment: A smart
quality‑evaluation strategy for traditional Chinese medicine based
on quality markers. Phytomedicine 2018;44:109‑16.
16. Chen CY. TCM Database@Taiwan: The world’s largest traditional
Chinese medicine database for drug screening in silico. PLoS One
17. Noraziah A, Abdella AN, Hamid RA, Sidek RM, Omardin MA.
Empirical study on medicinal herbs information system (MHIS)
in Malaysia. Afr J Bus Manage 2011;5:5292‑6.
18. Webster L, SpiroRF. Health information technology: A new world
for pharmacy. J Am Pharm Assoc 2010;50:e20‑31.
19. Nejad Isfahani SS, Raeisi AR, Jannesari H, Ehteshami A, Pheizi A,
Mirzaeian R. Evaluation of pharmacy information systems
performance in educational, private and social security hospitals
of Isfahan. Health Inf Manage 2013;10:664.
20. Binti Hassan SA. Content validity of STEMTIP using CVR method.
Int J Acad Res Bus Soc Sci 2018;8:1118‑25. [doi: 10.6007/IJARBSS/
21. Mumtaz A, Ashfaq UA, Ul Qamar MT, Anwar F, Gulzar F,
Ali MA, et al. MPD3: A useful medicinal plants database for drug
designing. Nat Prod Res 2017;31:1228‑36.
22. Baeza‑Yates R, Ribeiro BD. Modern Information Retrieval.
New York, Harlow, England: ACM Press, Addison‑Wesley; 2011.
23. Laporte MA, Garnier E. Thesau Form–Traits: A web based
collaborative tool to develop a thesaurus for plant functional
diversity research. Ecol Informatics 2012;11:34‑44.
24. Pawar N, Rajeswari K, Joshi A. Implementation of an efficient web
crawler to search medicinal plants and relevant diseases. In: 2016
International Conference on Computing Communication Control
and Automation (ICCUBEA). August 12, 2016. IEEE; p. 1‑4.
25. Thakar SB, Dhanavade MJ, Sonawane KD. LegumeDB:
Development of legume medicinal plant database and
comparative molecular evolutionary analysis of matK proteins
of legumes and mangroves. Curr Nutr Food Sci 2019;15:353‑62.
26. Le LT. Building Vietnamese Herbal Database Towards
Big Data Science in Nature‑Based Medicine. International
University‑Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh Vietnam;
27. Syed AH, Khan T. SHPIS: A database of medicinal plants from
Saudi Arabia. Int J Adv Comput Sci Appl 2017;8:49‑53.
28. Chowdhury GG. Introduction to Modern Information Retrieval.
London: Facet Publishing; 2010.
29. Ningthoujam SS, Talukdar AD, Potsangbam KS, Choudhury MD.
Challenges in developing medicinal plant databases for
sharing ethnopharmacological knowledge. J Ethnopharmacol