Document Type : Original Article


1 Modeling in Health Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences

2 Neuroscience Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences

3 Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Nursing Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery Razi, Kerman University of Medical Sciences

4 Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran


BACKGROUND AND AIM: Measuring child abuse and adverse experiences is a critical task with
regard to its long‑term impact on the health of individuals and communities. The purpose of this
study was to validate the Persian version of the International Adverse Childhood Experiences Abuse
Short Form (ACE‑ASF) in Iranian society.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross‑sectional study was conducted in Kerman, southeast of
Iran, in 2019, on 494 students from Kerman University of Medical Sciences, selected by convenience
sampling method. Psychometric properties of the questionnaire were examined after the forward
and backward translation processes. The factor structure of the questionnaire was evaluated using
exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The concurrent validity of
the questionnaire was assessed using the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ). Cronbach’s alpha
and corrected item‑total correlation were used to measure reliability.
RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 24.3 ± 5.3 years. Based on EFA, two physical–emotional
abuse and sexual abuse factors were obtained. The CFA fit indices well supported two extracted
factors. The CFA showed acceptable factor loadings. The internal consistency coefficient of
Cronbach’s alpha was 0.75 for the physical–emotional abuse factor and 0.77 for the sexual abuse
factor. The correlation coefficient of ACE‑ASF and CTQ was r = 0.56. The reliability index of intraclass
correlation coefficient was 0.73 (95% confidence interval: 0.60–0.84).
CONCLUSION: The Persian version of the ACE‑ASF questionnaire has acceptable psychometric


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