Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Community Medicine, Vir Chandra Singh Garhwali Government Institute of Medical Science and Research, Srinagar, Uttarakhand

2 Department of Physiology, AIIMS, Patna, Bihar, India


INTRODUCTION: Different types of learners based on sensory modalities are observed. Cognition or
physiological alterations in the sensory pathways might play its role in different modalities of visual,
auditory, read and write, and kinesthetic learners which are based on different sensory modalities
of perception
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to ascertain an objective parameter (neurophysiological
parameters) for the classification of learners based on their preferred sensory modality
MATERIALS AND METHODS: An experimental cross‑sectional study was conducted among
100 medical students. Learners were classified into visual, auditory, read‑write, and kinesthetic
learners based on the interpretation drawn on the basis of the VARK questionnaire. Sensory‑evoked
potentials (SEPs), including pattern shift visual (PSVEPs), brain stem auditory (BAEPs), short‑latency
somatosensory (SSEP), and event‑related potentials (P300) were measured. SEPs measured in
microvolts were recorded from the scalp with the help of active and reference electrodes. Multiple
responses to sensory stimuli (using NIHON KOHDEN Corporation Neuropack X1, Tokyo, Japan)
were recored and averaged using the computerized signal averging technique.
RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was observed in conduction velocities (in terms of
latency and amplitude) of SEP among different type of learners, except latency N145 wave form in
VEP (P < 0.05). A characteristic pattern of minimal comparative latency was observed among the
majority of visual learners. Similary, P300 has shown a characteristic pattern of decreased comparative
latency among majority of read and write learners.
CONCLUSION: Study findings suggested that among existing teaching and learning modalities,
visual modalities were observed faster but to retain it in memory and for abstract thinking, students
should utilize read and writing skills which are lacking in the era of digitalization and overuse of
electronic devices.


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