Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Education, Ilam Province

2 Department of Psychology, Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences

3 Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran


INTRODUCTION: Teacher empowerment is thought to improve student learning by fostering teaching
quality. Therefore, the purpose of this study is investigating the relationship between empowerment
and self‑efficacy of Iranian English as Foreign Language teachers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study is an experimental study; the population of the
study includes all the English language teachers of the universities of Ilam, Iran. Among whom by
random sampling, the sample which was consisted of 60 teachers were selected. Participants in
this study answered the School Participant Empowerment Scale questionnaire (Short and Rinehart,
1992) as the instrument of the study. The Pearson product‑moment correlation was computed to
determine the relationship between teacher empowerment and teacher self‑efficacy.
RESULTS: The results showed that there was a positive correlation between teacher empowerment
and their self‑efficacy (r = 0.55, P <  0.01) and differences among teachers’ self‑efficacy is not
significant according to age (r = −0.14, P = 0.23).
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of the study, empowerment and self‑efficacy have interactive
relationships; i.e. self‑efficacy in teachers leads to empowerment and empowerment in teachers
leads to self‑efficacy.


1. Shen J, Leslie JM, Spybrook JK, Ma X. Are principal background
and school processes related to teacher job satisfaction? A
multilevel study using schools and staffing survey 2003‑04. Am
Educ Res J 2012;49:200‑30.
2. Veisi S, Azizifar A, Gowhary H, Jamalinesari A. The relationship
between Iranian EFL teachers’ empowerment and teachers’
self‑Efficacy. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2015;185:437‑45.
3. Balyer A, Özcan K, Yildiz A. Teacher empowerment: School
administrators’ roles. Eurasian J Educ Res 2017;70:1‑18.
4. Lee AN, Nie Y. Understanding teacher empowerment:
Teachers’ perceptions of principal’s and immediate supervisor’s
empowering behaviours, psychological empowerment and
work‑related outcomes. Teach Teach Educ 2014;41:67‑79.
5. Lebrón MJ, Stanley CL, Kim AJ, Thomas KH. The empowering role
of profession‑based student organizations in developing student
leadership capacity. New Dir Stud Leadersh 2017;2017:83‑94.
6. Shah SR. Empowering EFL teachers through distributed
leadership: A critical perspective on leadership practices in an
educational institution. Int J Bus Soc Sci 2014; 5 (10): 9‑25.
7. Whistaker T. What Great Principals Do Differently. 15 Things
That Matter Most. Eye on Education; 2003. p. 1‑117.
8. Khany R, Tazik K. On the relationship between psychological
empowerment, trust, and Iranian EFL teachers’ job satisfaction:
The case of secondary school teachers. J Career Assess
9. Seibert SE, WangG, Courtright SH. Antecedents and consequences
of psychological and team empowerment in organizations:
A meta‑analytic review. J Appl Psychol 2011;96:981‑1003.
10. Radford DR, Hellyer P. Empowerment in a model of outreach
undergraduate dental education. Br Dent J 2017;222:41‑6.
11. Wells CM. Superintendents’ perceptions of teacher leadership in
selected districts. Int J Educ Leadersh Preparation. 2012;7:n2.
12. Bandura A. Self‑efficacy. In: Ramachaudran VS, editor.
Encyclopedia of Human Behavior. Vol. 4. New York: Academic
Press; 1994. p. 71‑81.
13. Alemdar M, Cappelli CJ, Criswell BA, Rushton GT. Evaluation
of a Noyce program: Development of teacher leaders in STEM
education. Eval Program Plann 2018;71:1‑11.
14. Marks B, McCulloh K. Success for students and nurses with
disabilities: A call to action for nurse educators. Nurse Educ
15. Damiano SR, Yager Z, McLean SA, Paxton SJ. Achieving body
confidence for young children: Development and pilot study of
a universal teacher‑led body image and weight stigma program
for early primary school children. Eat Disord 2018;26:487‑504.
16. Vaezi S, Fallah N. The relationship between self‑efficacy and stress
among Iranian EFL teachers. J Lang Teach Res 2011;2:1168.
17. Tabatabaee Yazdi M, Motallebzadeh K, Ashraf H. Iranian
EFL teachers’ self‑efficacy and teachers’ burnout: A case of
comparison. Int J Lang Learn Appl Linguist World 2013;4:59‑73.
18. Olsson G, Låftman SB, Modin B. School collective efficacy and
bullying behaviour: A multilevel study. Int J Environ Res Public
Health 2017;14. pii: E1607.
19. Smoktunowicz E, Cieslak R, Demerouti E. Interrole conflict and
self‑efficacy to manage work and family demands mediate the
relationships of job and family demands with stress in the job
and family domains. Anxiety Stress Coping 2017;30:485‑97.
20. Short PM, Rinehart JS. School participant empowerment
scale: Assessment of level of empowerment within the school
environment. Educ Psychol Meas 1992;52:951‑60.
21. Kilgus SP, Riley‑Tillman TC, Chafouleas SM, Christ TJ, Welsh ME.
Direct behavior rating as a school‑based behavior universal
screener: Replication across sites. J Sch Psychol 2014;52:63‑82.
22. Dunlosky J, Rawson KA, Marsh EJ, Nathan MJ, Willingham DT.
Improving students’ learning with effective learning techniques:
Promising directions from cognitive and educational psychology.
Psychol Sci Public Interest 2013;14:4‑58.
23. Perman S, Turner S, Ramsay AI, Baim‑Lance A, Utley M, Fulop NJ.
School‑based vaccination programmes: A systematic review of the
evidence on organisation and delivery in high income countries.
BMC Public Health 2017;17:252.
24. Ha AS, Lonsdale C, Lubans DR, Ng JY. Increasing students’
physical activity during school physical education: Rationale and
protocol for the SELF‑FIT cluster randomized controlled trial.
BMC Public Health 2017;18:11.
25. Neumerski CM. Rethinking instructional leadership, a
review: What do we know about principal, teacher, and coach
instructional leadership, and where should we go from here?
Educ Administration Q 2013;49:310‑47.
26. Abdollahi MR. Social and economic factors affecting the teaching
and learning of high school students in Ardabil. Int Peer Rev Open
Access J Rapid Publ 2017; 10 (2):286.