1 Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Departman of Nursing, Dezful University of Medical Sciences, Dezful, Iran

2 Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

3 Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

5 Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran The Collaboration Center of Meta-Analysis Research, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran


BACKGROUND: The empirical assessment of the health outcomes associated with migration caused
by climate change is still unclear. However, health outcomes in the early stages are expected to be
similar to the health outcomes associated with refugees. The objective of the present study was a
systematic review of the health effects of migration caused by climate change.
METHODOLOGY: A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items
for Systematic Reviews and Meta‑Analyses guidelines. Online databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web
of Science, and Google Scholar) were used to identify papers published that evaluated the health
effects of migration caused by climate change. The search, article selection, and data extraction were
carried out by two researchers independently. All English‑language articles on the health effects of
migration caused by climate change were included in this study.
RESULTS: An analysis of the complex ways in which climate change influences populations can
be facilitated using a three‑class classification: compulsory displacement, resettlement planning,
and migration. Subsequent to climate changes, other changes, and environmental deficiencies,
compulsory displacement may occur in case of inadequacy of compatibility responses. A part of
migration‑related health outcomes caused by climate change is from displacement from rural to urban
areas, especially in developing countries. There is significant documentation on health and livelihood
inequalities between migrant groups and host populations in developed countries.
CONCLUSION: If climate change continues in its current direction, it is likely that the number of
refugees and crises will increase in the coming decades. Although the domain and the extent of health
hazards caused by the displacement of the population associated with climate change cannot be
clearly predicted, by reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, along with social and environmental
adaptation strategies, migration caused by climate change, health risks and its relevant crises can
be greatly reduced.


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