Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Social Medicine, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences

2 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences

3 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Health and Nutrition, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran


BACKGROUND: An unhealthy lifestyle can threaten the health of nursing staff, especially in the
context of cardiovascular diseases  (CVDs). Considering the importance of health education in
promoting preventive behaviors against these diseases, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of
an educational program based on the health belief model (HBM) on improving preventive behaviors
of nurses against CVDs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a randomized controlled trial with a pretest–posttest design
conducted on 104 nursing staff of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Kuhdasht, Lorestan, Iran, in 2017.
They were randomly assigned into two groups of HBM (n = 52) and control (n = 52). The HBM group
received the educational intervention for 6 weeks, one session per week each for 30–40 min. They
were measured before and after the intervention using a demographic form, a researcher‑made HBM
questionnaire, Baecke Habitual Physical Activity Questionnaire, and the 3‑day food intake record all in
Persian. The collected data were analyzed in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)
v. 24 software using the Chi‑squared test and paired t‑test.
RESULTS: The educational program could only increase the perceived severity (22.64 ± 2.22),
perceived benefits (50.83 ± 5.22), and perceived self‑efficacy (42.37 ± 5.93) of nurses in the HBM
group compared to the controls (P < 0.05). The nurses’ perceived sensitivity was also increased,
but it was not significant (P  >  0.05). In the HBM group, a significant change was found in the
food intake level for energy (t = 4.79, P = 0.000), protein (t = −2.99, P = 0.004), and unsaturated
fat (t = −2.94, P = 0.005) after intervention. No significant difference was observed in the total physical
activity score after the intervention (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: An educational program based on the HBM model can be used to increase the
severity, benefits, and self‑efficacy of the nurses’ preventive behaviors against CVDs and modify
their dietary regime.


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