Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Public Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Public Health, School of Health, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran

3 Department of Health Education and Promotion, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

4 Department of Nursing and Midwifery, Iranshahr University of Medical Sciences, Chabahar, Iran

5 Department of Public Health, School of Health, Khoy University of Medical Sciences, Khoy, Iran


BACKGROUND: Smokeless tobacco (SLT) products are highly addictive and contain at least 28
carcinogenic chemicals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of theory‑based on
the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change on consumption of SLT products by Merchants’
Guilds in 2018.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present quasi‑experimental research was conducted over one
intervention group. The research population consisted of all consumers of the SLT products among
the merchants’ guilds in Chabahar City, Iran in 2018. Data were gathered from 320 individuals by
simple random sampling using a valid and reliable researcher‑made questionnaire. The intervention
program was designed based on the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change cognitive processes
and lasted 6 months. After the intervention, the same questionnaires were administered among the
participants. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 using the descriptive and analytical tests.
RESULTS: In the preintervention phase, the participants’ mean scores of the cognitive processes
at the precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages were 29.16 ± 4.63, 25.07 ± 3.84,
and 12.12 ± 1.63, respectively. At the postintervention phase, mean scores of the precontemplation,
contemplation, and preparation stages reached to 40.5 ± 5.96, 38.8 ± 5.03, and 35.5 ± 4.23,
respectively. Furthermore, the participants’ mean sores at the action and maintenance stages were
36.4 ± 4.57 and 43.3 ± 3.29, respectively. According to the ANOVA, a significant relationship was
found between cognitive processes at the preintervention phase and stages of change (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Individuals can improve from the precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation
phases to the action and maintenance stages by attending based on Transtheoretical Model of
Behavior Change educational interventions. It is suggested that the structure of this model be used
to reduce high‑risk behaviors in other occupations.


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