Document Type : Original Article


1 School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, Iran

2 Research Center of Addiction and Behavioral Sciences, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

3 Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Disaster and Emergency Health, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

5 Research Center for Addiction and Risky Behaviors (ReCARB), Pychiatric Department, Iran University of Medical Siences, Tehran, Iran

6 PhD in Military Psychology, Psychology Department of Hajar Hospital

7 Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran


INTRODUCTION: Emergency prehospital providers (EPHP) who are constantly providing medical
care in threatening conditions are more at risk of displaying psychological distress presentations in
disaster situations. Problem‑solving strategies are essential for effective and efficient management
of event position. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore psychological distress promotion
in Iranian EPHP.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative content analysis study was conducted based on 24
semi‑structured interviews. A purposeful sampling method was applied until reaching data saturation.
Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and then, data condensing, labeling, coding, and defining
categories were performed by the qualitative content analysis recommended by the Landman and
Graneheim approach.
RESULTS: Based on the experience of study participants, two main themes with six categories
developed. The main themes included emotion‑based management and problem‑based management
when confronting with incidence scene.
CONCLUSION: The main problems of EPHP in confronting with incidence and disasters scenes
are psychological distress which some rescuers have emotional reactions while some others who
are more resilience and experience manage this problem in the form of problem‑based approach.
It is recommended these practical strategies to be taught to less experienced rescuers for avoiding
emotional‑based reactions and better management of disaster scene.


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