1 Department of Political Science, Faculty of Arts, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

2 Department of HIV/AIDS, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA

3 Department of Politics and International Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, United Kingdom


The political, social, economic, and security implications of health‑related issues such as emerging
infectious diseases or the epidemic of Non Communicable Diseases offer a rare opportunity for
professionals in foreign policy and international relations to engage with the health arena and at the
same time for global health experts to enter into and intersect with the domain of diplomacy. The aim
of this review is to understand and explore the concepts of global health diplomacy (GHD), health
security, and human security. For this narrative review, a literature search was done in PubMed,
Scopus, and EBSCO for the “global health diplomacy,” “health security,” and “human security,” and
full‑texts were reviewed. The recent outbreaks of Ebola in West Africa and Zika in South America
are pertinent examples of the nature of the human security crisis and the imminent and severe threat
posed to human life across the globe as a result of these epidemics. The Commission on Human
Security defines human security as the protection of the vital core of all human lives from critical
and pervasive threats. We highlight the ways in which health has now become an issue of national
security/global concern and also how GHD can aid in the development of new bilateral or multilateral
agreements to safeguard the health and security of people in our globalized world. The paper provides
a prospective about, and overview of, health and human security that essentially emphasizes the
growing interlinkages between global health, diplomacy, and foreign policy