Document Type : Original Article


1 tatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Research Center of Prevention and Epidemiology of Non‑Communicable Disease, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

2 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Occupational Environmental Research Center, Rafsanjan Medical School, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran

3 Research Center of Addiction and Behavioral Sciences, Diabetes Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

4 Neurology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran


BACKGROUND: Smoking hookahs is one of the most preventable risk factors for non communicable
diseases. It is also considered as the gateway to youth addiction. Planning and training to prevent
this health problem is considered an important priority. The aim of this study was to determine the
predictive factors for preventing hookah smoking (PHS) in the youth of Sirjan city, based on the
protection motivation theory (PMT).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research was a cross‑sectional study conducted in 2018, and
participants were chosen by simple random sampling. Data were collected by a researcher‑made
questionnaire which was valid and reliable and was designed based on the PMT constructs. This
questionnaire was completed by 280 young people in Sirjan, Iran. Data were analyzed through
descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and linear regression.
RESULTS: Pearson correlation coefficients showed that there was a significant correlation between
protection motivation and the structures of the PMT, except for the response cost structure.
The strongest correlation was between protection motivation and self‑efficacy (r = 0.502) and
fear (r = 0.470). The structures of the PMT predicted 36.5% of PHS, and fear (β =0.27) was the
strongest predictor of PHS.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that the constructs of the PMT can partially predict
PHS. This theory can be used as a tool for designing and implementing educational interventions to
prevent hookah smoking among the youth.


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