Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences

2 Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Research Center for Nursing and Midwifery Care in Family Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences,

3 Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences

4 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Research Center of Prevention and Epidemiology of Noncommunicable Disease, School of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

5 Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Lorestan, Iran


BACKGROUND: Health beliefs play an important role in people’s willingness to participate in
health‑promoting behaviors. Given the role of beliefs in women’s function and the importance of
the benefits of mammogram, and because the predictors of a behavior are a major prerequisite to
codification of an effective prevention program, the present study was conducted with the aim of
predicting mammography based on Health Belief Model (HBM) in women in Khorramabad.
Materials and Methods: In this cross‑sectional study, 262 women referring to health centers in
Khorramabad, Lorestan province, in 2018, were selected by randomly sampling. The data collection
tool was a four‑part questionnaire including demographic information, knowledge on breast cancer
and mammography, Champion’s Health Belief Model, and Champion’s Self‑Efficacy Questionnaire
for Mammography. Validity and reliability of the tool were investigated and confirmed. Data were
analyzed by version 16 of SPSS software using descriptive statistics, Chi‑squared test, and multiple
logistic regression.
RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation) age of the participants was 49.26 (±7.79) years.
Seventy‑nine (30.85%) of the 262 participants reported mammography. Constructs’ sensitivity,
benefits, barriers, and perceived self‑efficacy were significantly different in terms of performing
mammography (P < 0.05). Participants with a history of breast cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 11.18, 95%
confidence interval [CI] = [3.73–33.46]) had lower perceived barriers (OR = 3.54, 95% CI= [1.77–7.09]),
were more likely to undergo mammography than women with no family history of breast cancer, and
had moderate‑to‑high perceived barriers (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that health managers are required to pay more
attention to training and promoting screening methods. Understanding the barriers to mammography in
women by managers can help design and implement effective programs that enhance mammography
in women.


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