Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Epidemiology, School of Epidemiology and Biostatics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Center for Health Related Social and Behavioral Sciences Research, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran


BACKGROUND: Attention‑deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common reasons
for visiting psychiatrists and psychologists. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of ADHD
and its related risk factors among children at elementary schools.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross‑sectional study focused on teachers and parents of 779
elementary students who were selected through stratified cluster random sampling; Conners Parent
and Teacher Questionnaires were used to collecting data. The data were analyzed by the use of
descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage), independent samples t‑test, Chi‑square, one‑way
ANOVA, and linear regression. The significant level was set at 0.05.
Results: According to teachers’ responses, the prevalence of ADHD among students in elementary
schools was 4.4%, whereas parents reported a prevalence of 0.5%. There was a significant
relationship between childhood ADHD and marital status of parents, fathers’ smoking habits, previous
experience of living in rural areas, children’s previous history of having diseases and using the
medicine, previous history of ADHD, and psychological problems in the family.
Conclusions: According to the study, teachers and parents suffer from a lack of knowledge about
ADHD. Thus, the educational workshops and programs should be held for teachers, parents, and
counselors to inform them about the procedures for timely diagnosis and treatment of ADHD.


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