Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil, Iran

2 Health Management and Economics Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Iran

3 Department of Education and Health Promotion, School of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Education and Health Promotion, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Iran

5 Department of Social Work, ShahJalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh

6 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran


BACKGROUND: This research is one of the very few studies, which seeks a focalized examination
to observe the effects of the backpack on the teenager students. Adolescents prefer rucksacks as
one of their favorite school bags during their school studies. This study inspects how knapsacks
gradually bring changes as injuries in the bodies of school‑going adolescents. There are ample
studies in the past literature, which evidence the injuries of backpack among adolescents, such as
backache, neck pain, and shoulder pain. The principal objective of this study is to determine the
effects of backpacks on musculoskeletal injuries among school‑going adolescents based on previous
studies support in this research field.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review study selected observational studies from the past
literature indexed in the databases of Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and CINAHL during 1999–
2020. This review focused on the keywords of “Backpack,” “Musculoskeletal Injuries,” and “Adolescent”
from MESH and selected 14 out of 210 articles based on the research objective. According to the
Crombie Checklist, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and investigating the quality of the report, this
review focused on literature evidence to the field under investigation.
RESULTS: Based on the chosen 14 articles, the findings of the present review indicated two
outcomes by considering the impact of the backpack on musculoskeletal injuries and pains among
adolescents. The results of the review studies specified that there was a statistically significant
positive relationship between the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries and pain using a backpack
among most of the male and female adolescents. The findings also stipulate that injuries and pain
intensity among female adolescents were higher than the male students.
CONCLUSION: The results of this review study specified that improper use of the backpack,
which exceeded the standard weight, caused chorionic pain and injuries between both genders of
adolescents. The generalizability of the results is suitable for this review study.


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