Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


BACKGROUND: With the increase in the elderly population in the world and the consequent increase
in diseases and their physical and mental problems, improving self‑care behaviors by increasing
self‑efficacy in the elderly plays an important role in promoting their health and can increase their
life satisfaction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of self‑care self‑efficacy program on life
satisfaction of the elderly referred to selected health centers in Isfahan, Iran, in 2014.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a quasi‑experimental study with two experimental
and control groups and was performed on 64 elderly people referred to selected health centers in
Isfahan. The samples were randomly divided into experimental and control groups, and a self‑care
self‑efficacy program was performed on the experimental group. Data collection tools included
demographic information questionnaire and life satisfaction indexes A questionnaire. Data were
analyzed using the statistical tests such as Chi‑square, independent t‑test, Mann–Whitney, repeated
measures analysis of variance, and Least Significant Difference (LSD) post hoc test.
RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of demographic
characteristics. Before the intervention, the mean score of life satisfaction was not statistically
significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.88). However, immediately and 1 month after
the intervention, the mean score of life satisfaction in the experimental group increased, and this
score was significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that the self‑care self‑efficacy program has been
effective in increasing the life satisfaction of the elderly. Therefore, using this self‑care self‑efficacy
program is recommended to promote life satisfaction in the elderly.


1. Kiani M, Latifi Z, Yousefi Z. The structural equation modeling
of elderly individuals’ life expectancy based on the sensitivity of
anxiety, social support and perception of pain. Salmand Iran J
Ageing 2019;14:188‑99.
2. Molaei M, Etemad K, Taheri Tanjani P. Prevalence of elder abuse
in Iran: A systematic review and meta‑analysis. Salmand Iran J
Ageing 2017;12:242‑53.
3. World Health Organization. Ageing and Health; 05 February, 2018.
Available from:‑room/fact‑sheets/
detail/ageing‑and‑health. [Last accessed on 2018 Jul 09].
4. The Civil Servants Pension Organization; 16 August, 2019.
Available from: [Last
accessed on 2019 Jul 09].
5. Mirzaie M, Darabi S, Babapour M. Population aging in Iran and rising health care costs (Persian). Salmand Iran J Ageing
6. Mohamadian H, Moradgholi A, Lat‑ifi S.M, Bazarghani A. Effect
of moti‑vational interviewing on hyperten‑sion, self‑care and
quality of life of rural aged people: Application of health belief
model. Iran J Educ Comm Health 2019;6:95‑101.
7. Kun LG. Telehealth and the global health network in the 21st
century. From homecare to public health informatics. Comput
Meth Prog Bio 2001;64:155‑67.
8. World Health Organization. WHO Guidelines on Integrated
Care for Older People (ICOPE). World Health Organization;
10 May, 2017. Available from:
ageing/publications/guidelines‑icope/en/. [Last accessed on
2017 Jul 16].
9. Söderhamn O, Lindencrona C, Ek A‑C. Ability for self‑care among
home dwelling elderly people in a health district in Sweden. Int
J Nurs 2000;37:361‑68.
10. Walker SN, Volkan K, Sechrist KR, Pender NJ. Health‑promoting
life styles of older adults: Comparisons with young and
middle‑aged adults, correlates and patterns. ANS Adv Nurs Sci
11. Erci B, Yilmaz D, Budak F. Effect of self‑care ability and life
satisfaction on the levels of hope in elderly people. J Psychiatr
Nurs Psikiyatri Hemsireleri Dern 2017;8:72‑6.
12. Gao J, Wang J, Zheng P, Haardörfer R, Kegler MC, Zhu Y, et al.
Effects of self‑care, self‑efficacy, social support on glycemic control
in adults with type 2 diabetes. BMC Fam Pract 2013;14:66‑72.
13. Yang SO, Jeong GH, Kim SJ, Lee SH. Correlates of
self‑care behaviors among low‑income elderly women with
hypertension in South Korea. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs
14. Hejazi S, Peyman N, Tajfard M, Esmaily H. The impact of
education based on self‑efficacy theory on health literacy,
self‑efficacy and self‑care behaviors in patients with type 2
diabetes. Iran J Heal Educ Heal Promot 2018;5:296‑303.
15. Naseh L, Heidari M. Relationship between general self‑Efficacy
and quality of life among elderly living in Chaharmahal Bakhtiari
nursing homes. Salmand Iran J Ageing 2015;10:62‑71.
16. Mohebi S, Azadbakht L, Feizi A, Sharifirad G, Kargar M. Review
the key role of self‑efficacy in diabetes care. J Educ Health Promot
17. Bandura A. Self‑efficacy mechanism in human agency. Am
Psychol 1982;37:122‑47.
18. Bandura A. Social Foundations of Thought and Action.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice‑Hall; 1986.
19. Lev EL, Owen SV. A prospective study of adjustment to
hemodialysis. ANNA J 1998;25:495‑503.
20. Peyman N, Abdollahi M, Zadehahmad Z. The study of related
factors with self‑care and self‑efficacy in heart failure patients.
J Torbat Heydariyeh Univ Med Sci 2018;6:55‑61.
21. Sharoni SKA, Abdul Rahman H, Minhat HS, Shariff Ghazali S,
Azman Ong MH. A self‑efficacy education programme on foot
self‑care behaviour among older patients with diabetes in a public
long‑term care institution, Malaysia: A Quasi‑experimental Pilot
Study. BMJ Open 2017;7:e014393.
22. Ahmad Sharoni SK, Abdul Rahman H, Minhat HS,
Shariff‑Ghazali S, Azman Ong MH. The effects of self‑efficacy
enhancing program on foot self‑care behaviour of older adults
with diabetes: A randomised controlled trial in elderly care
facility, Peninsular Malaysia. PLoS One 2018;13:e0192417.
23. Fu D, Fu H, McGowan P, Shen YE, Zhu L, Yang H, et al.
Implementation and quantitative evaluation of chronic disease
self‑management programme in Shanghai, China: Randomized
controlled trial. Bull World Health Organ 2003;81:174‑82.
24. Van der Bijl JJ, Shortridge Baggett LM. The theory and
measurement of self‑efficacy construct. Sch Inq Nurs Pract
25. Evans RJ. A comparison of rural and urban older adults in Iowa
on specific markers of successful aging. J Gerontol Soc Work
26. Jin B. Social Psychological Determinants of Life Satisfaction
in Older Adults [PhD. dissertation]. Bloomington: Indiana
University Bloomington; 2001.
27. Mazidi M, Rokni H, Sahebkar AH, Mohammadi A,
Ghayour‑Mobarhan M, Ferns GA. Simvastatin treatment does
not affect serum Vitamin D concentrations in patients with
dyslipidemia: A randomized double‑blind placebo‑controlled
cross‑over trial. Int J Prev Med 2016;7:80.
28. Abazari P, Jafari TA, Sabzghabaee AM. How much elderly people
of Isfahan are adherent to their drug therapy regimens. J Edu
Health Promot 2017;6:1‑4.
29. Gholizade A, Shiravani E. The relationship between demographic
factors, economic, social and family with life satisfaction of the
elderly in Esfahan. J Appl Sociol 2010;21:69‑82.
30. Singh AP, Shukla A, Singh PA. Perceived self efficacy and mental
health among elderly. Delhi Psychiatry J 2010;13:314‑21.
31. Bagheri‑Nesami M, Sohrabi M, Ebrahimi M‑J, Heidari‑Fard J,
Yanj J, Golchinmehr S. The relationship between life satisfaction
with social support and self‑efficacy in community‑dwelling
elderly in Sari, Iran, 2012. J Maz Univ Med Sci 2013;23:37‑47.
32. Poorbaferani Z, Mazaheri MA, Hasanzadeh A. Life satisfaction,
general self‑efficacy, self‑esteem, and communication skills in
married women. J Educ Health Promot 2018;7:173.
33. Tsay SL, Healstead M. Self‑care self‑efficacy, depression, and
quality of life among patients receiving hemodialysis in Taiwan.
Int J Nurs Stud 2002;39:245‑51.
34. Ozer M. A study on the life satisfaction of elderly individuals
living in family environment and nursing homes. Turk J Geriatr
35. Karyani AK, Matin BK, Gebru AA, Dizaj JY, Rezaei S. Life and
health satisfaction and their association toward health‑related
quality of life, body mass index and chronic diseases in Iran.
J Educ Health Promot 2019;8:71.
36. Borhaninejad V, Nabvi S, Lotfalinezhad E, Amini F, Mansouri T.
Relationship between social participation and life satisfaction
among older people. J North Khorasan Univ Med Sci
37. Neugarten BL, Havighurst RJ, Tobin SS. The measurement of life
satisfaction. J Gerontol 1961;16:134‑43.
38. Emami Z, Molavi H, Kalantary M. Path analysis of the effect of
spiritual and moral intelligence on self‑actualization and life
satisfaction in the old aged in Isfahan. Knowl Res Appl Psychol
39. Lee Y. Influence of self‑rated health status, self‑efficacy and social
support on health behavior in urban elderly people living alone.
J Converg Cult Technol 2018;4:81‑7.
40. Niknami M, Namjou A, Baghaei M, Atrkar Roushan Z. Survey
the relationship between life satisfaction and health behaviors in
elderly people referring to active retire mental centers. J GUILAN
Univ Med Sci 2010;19:46‑54.
41. Rasoulifar A, Vahedian‑Shahroodi M, Jamali J, Tehrani H.
Self‑efficacy and its relationship with factors affecting nutritional
status in elderly. Payesh 2020;19:205‑15.
42. Ghimire S, Baral B, Karmacharya I, Callahan K, Mishra S. Life
satisfaction among elderly patients in Nepal: Associations
with nutritional and mental well‑being. Health Qual Life Out
43. Rezaei SH, Esmaeili M. The effect of physical activities on the
quality of life, hope and life satisfaction among the elderly in
Ilam city. J Gerontol 2017;2:29‑40.
44. HoriZ, Mohammad Khan Kermanshahi S, MemarianR. The effect
of physical activity promotion program on life satisfaction in the
rural elderly. J Geriatr Nurs 2017;3:21‑33.
45. Eshaghi L, Nikrahan G. The effectiveness of Lyubomirsky happiness training on mental health, life satisfaction, life
expectancy and happiness in Shahreza nursing home women.
J Gerontol 2018;2:45‑54.
46. Abdi A, Soufinia A, Borji M, Tarjoman A. The effect of religion
intervention on life satisfaction and depression in elderly with
heart failure. J Relig Health 2019;58:823‑32.
47. Moon JH, Kim D. Factors influencing life satisfaction in elderly
living alone. J Korea Contents Assoc 2018;18:44‑54.