Document Type : Original Article


1 Phd Candidate in Medical Education, Virtual School of Medical Education and Management, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor of Orthopedics, Department of Medical Education, Virtual School of Medical Education and Management, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Community- Based Health Education, Virtual School of Medical Education and Management, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences,Tehran, Iran


BACKGROUND: Despite the development of valuable teaching methods and assessment tools in
the field of surgery education, yet unpreparedness for independence practice by surgical residents
remains a problem in most of the countries.
AIMS: This study aims to explain the surgical residents’ experience of the teaching and learning
process in the operating rooms in Iran.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study is a qualitative research that was done from May 2019
to June 2020 in Tehran and eight other cities in Iran. The selected methodology was constructivist
grounded theory. The study setting was 11 teaching hospitals. Data were collected through 36 in‑depth
interviews and 132 h of observation. Participants were selected initially by purposive sampling and
then by theoretical sampling for covering gaps and completing categories.
RESULTS: Findings showed that the confused educational system was the main concern of the
residents’ experience of the teaching and learning process in the operating room. This concern is
investigated by dividing into four subcategories: Education in the shadow of treatment, inefficient
education, patient safety versus trusting residents for independent practice, and unstructured
CONCLUSION: Based on residents’ experience about challenges such as inefficient education,
the influence of patient safety versus trusting residents for independent practice, and unstructured
assessment, the surgical residents’ education in the operating rooms needs to revise.


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