Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Community Based Psychiatric Care Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran,

2 Department of E‑learning, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


BACKGROUND: Nowadays, one of the most important challenges of the universities and higher
education centers is academic dishonesty among students. Academic dishonesty is done through
cheating, deception, and plagiarism, which creates serious educational, studious, and social problems
for the students and society. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of virtual and
workshop training on the knowledge and attitude of M. S. students in terms of plagiarism.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research was an applied interventional study of quasi‑experimental
type having pretest and posttest and the participants of this study included 90 M. S. nursing students
of Medical Science University of Shiraz in the southwestern part of Iran.
RESULTS: The comparison of the three groups indicated that virtual and workshop training, both,
developed the knowledge and attitude of students regarding plagiarism; however, the comparison
between two methods did not indicate a statistically significant difference.
CONCLUSION: Both virtual and workshop training methods had an effect on increasing students’
knowledge and attitude. Regarding the positive effect of training academic dishonesty using two
workshop and virtual training methods, both can be used as efficient and effective methods in training
dimensions depending on the condition and facilities to prevent and reduce plagiarism in students.


1. Jamshidi BG, Saeedi M, Haidari G. A survey on knowledge
of post‑graduate students of Shaheed Chamran University of
Ahwaz of plagiarism and its influencing factors. Inf Syst Serv
2014; 3:95‑108.
2. Lin WY. Self‑plagiarism in academic journal articles: From the
perspectives of international editors‑in‑chief in editorial and
COPE case. Scientometrics 2020;1‑21.
3. Ghasemzadeh M. Application of Theory of planned behavior in
prediction of factors affecting the intention of plagiarism. J Med
Educ Develop 2018;11:52‑62.
4. Oran NT, Can HÖ, Şenol S, Hadımlı AP. Academic dishonesty
among health science school students. Nurs Ethics 2016;23:919‑31.
5. Du Y. Evaluation of intervention on Chinese graduate students’
understanding of textual plagiarism and skills at source
referencing. Asses Evaluat Higher Educ 2020;45:14‑29.
6. Mokhtari LakehN, NafarM, Ghanbari KhanghahA, Kazemnezhad
Leili E. Nursing students’ views on code of ethics, commitment to
the ethic of, academic dishonesty and neutralization behaviors.
J Holistic Nurs Midwifery 2014;24:64‑71.
7. White J, Phakoe M, Rispel LC. Practice what you preach’: Nurses’
perspectives on the Code of Ethics and Service Pledge in five South
African hospitals. Global Health Action 2015; 11;8:26341
8. Keçeci A, Bulduk S, Oruç D, Celik S. Academic dishonesty among
nursing students: A descriptive study. Nurs Ethics 2011;18:725‑33.
9. Guraya SY, Guraya SS. The confounding factors leading to
plagiarism in academic writing and some suggested remedies:
A systematic review. JPMA J Pakistan Med Assoc 2017;67:767‑72.
10. Isakov M, Tripathy A. Behavioral correlates of cheating:
Environmental specificity and reward expectation. PLoS One
11. Alhadlaq AS, Dahmash AB, Alshomer F. plagiarism perceptions
and attitudes among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Sultan
Qaboos Univ Med J 2020;20:e77‑82.
12. Curasi CF. The relative influences of neutralizing behavior and
subcultural values on academic dishonesty. J Educ Business
13. Akeley Spear J, Miller AN. The effects of instructor fear appeals
and moral appeals on cheating‑related attitudes and behavior of
university students. Ethics Behav 2012;22:196‑207.
14. Williams MW, Williams MN. Academic dishonesty, self‑control,
and general criminality: A prospective and retrospective study of
academic dishonesty in a New Zealand University. Ethics Behav
15. Jereb E, Perc M, Lämmlein B, Jerebic J, Urh M, Podbregar I, et al.
Factors influencing plagiarism in higher education: A comparison
of German and Slovene students. PLoS One 2018;13:e0202252.
16. Mohammad Hosseinpur R, Bagheri Nevisi R, Afzali Shahri M.
An Investigation of the reasons for committing plagiarism in the
Iranian academic community: Editor‑in‑chiefs, professors, and
students’ perspective. Foreign Language Res J 2018;7:555‑88.
17. Javaeed A, Khan AS, Khan SH, Ghauri SK. Perceptions
of plagiarism among undergraduate medical students in
Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Pak J Med Sci 2019;35:532‑6.
18. Stander M. Strategies to help university students avoid plagiarism:
A focus on translation as an intervention strategy. J Further Higher
Educ 2020;44:156‑69.
19. Kuriplachová G, Magurová D, Hudáková A, Andraščíková Š,
Rybárová Ľ. New teaching methods for practical training in
nursing within the project Tempus IV‑CCNURCA. MEFANET J
20. Zhang B, Gao Q, Fokkema M, Alterman V, Liu Q. Adolescent
interpersonal relationships, social support and loneliness in high
schools: Mediation effect and gender differences. Soc Sci Res
21. Hamann J, Mendel R, Reichhart T, Rummel‑Kluge C, Kissling W.
A “mental‑health‑at‑the‑workplace” educational workshop
reduces managers’ stigma toward depression. J Nervous Ment
Dis 2016;204:61‑3.
22. Moazami F, Bahrampour E, Azar MR, Jahedi F, Moattari M.
Comparing two methods of education (virtual versus traditional)
on learning of Iranian dental students: A post‑test only design
study. BMC Med Educ 2014;14:45.
23. Soltanimehr E, Bahrampour E, Imani MM, Rahimi F, Almasi B,
Moattari M. Effect of virtual versus traditional education on
theoretical knowledge and reporting skills of dental students in
radiographic interpretation of bony lesions of the jaw. BMC Med
Educ 2019;19:233.
24. Padilha JM, Machado PP, Ribeiro A, Ramos J, Costa P. Clinical
virtual simulation in nursing education: Randomized controlled
trial. J Med Internet Res 2019;21:e11529.
25. Teasdale TA, Shaikh M. Efficacy of a geriatric oral health CD as
a learning tool. J Dent Educ 2006;70:1366‑9.
26. Lu Y, Guo Y, Diao H, Liang X, Lu J, Zeng Y. Comparison of
the educational effect upon myopia prevention and treatment between video demonstration and traditional teaching. Eye Sci
27. Pahinis K, Stokes CW, Walsh TF, Tsitrou E, Cannavina G.
A blended learning course taught to different groups of
learners in a dental school: Follow‑up evaluation. J Dent Educ
28. Vause TD, Allison DJ, Vause T, Tekok‑Kilic A, Ditor DS,
Min JK. Comparison of a web‑based teaching tool and
traditional didactic learning for In vitro fertilization patients:
A preliminary randomized controlled trial. J Obstet Gynaecol
Can 2018;40:588‑94.
29. Li Z, Tsai M‑H, Tao J, Lorentz C. Switching to blended learning:
The impact on students’ academic performance. J Nurs Educ
Practice 2014;4:245.
30. Devi B, Khandelwal B, Das M. Comparison of the effectiveness of
video‑assisted teaching program and traditional demonstration
on nursing students learning skills of performing obstetrical
palpation. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2019;24:118.