Document Type : Original Article


Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Pelita Harapan University, Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia


BACKGROUND: Several preventive measures were used by governments around the world to
suppress the transmission of SARS‑CoV‑2, including quarantine. During quarantine more people
are at risk of developing mental health problems as social media exposure was increasing.
OBJECTIVES: The objective is to investigate the impact of social media exposure during coronavirus
disease 2019 (COVID‑19) pandemic on depression, anxiety, and stress.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross‑sectional study was conducted between April and May 2020
during the large scale social restriction in Indonesia using online questionnaire Indonesian citizens
over 18 years of age were invited to take part by answering online questionnaire through Google
forms ( Data gathered were demographic data, depression, anxiety,
and stress that were assessed using Depression Anxiety Stress Scale‑21, duration of social media
usage, and social media platforms used during COVID‑19 pandemic. Data was analysed using
Pearson Chi‑square and ANOVA. Statistically significant variables and additional risk factors was
analyzed using multinomial logistic regression.
RESULTS: The median age was 24 years (range 17–56 years), 121 (55,0%) samples were female.
The three most frequent social media platforms used by participants were Instagram, WhatsApp, and
YouTube. Female were more likely to suffer from mild‑moderate depression compared to male (odds
ratio [OR]: 2.344; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.105–4.972; P = 0.026) and more likely to suffer
from severe‑extremely severe anxiety (OR: 2.066; 95% CI: 1.019–4.187; P = 0.044). Social media
exposure was associated with less likelihood to suffer from severe‑extremely severe depression,
mild‑moderate, and severe‑extremely severe anxiety, mild‑moderate stress.
CONCLUSION: Social media exposure was associated with less depression, anxiety, and stress in
the COVID‑19 pandemic era. Medical professionals and government officials could use social media
to disseminate knowledge about COIVD‑19 to bring positive psychological effect.


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