Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran

2 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran

3 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Department of Health Promotion and Education, School of Health, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran


BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a preventable disease, using three secondary preventive methods
of mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self‑examination (BSE) that can
lead to early detection of breast cancer. This study was designed to assess breast cancer screening
behavior and its associated factors in females employed in South Khorasan.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this analytic‑descriptive study, 2256 female personnel of
governmental organizations were investigated in Birjand city in 2016–2017. The data collection tool
was a three‑part questionnaire: sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge about breast cancer
screening methods plus women’s performance, and stage of change regarding screening behaviors
of mammography, CBE, and BSE. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 and one‑way analysis
variance, Tukey’s post hoc, and multiple logistic regression model statistical tests.
RESULTS: The mean ± standard deviation score of knowledge of the women was 3.45 ± 1.5. There
was a significant difference of the mean score of knowledge between the single and married (P = 0.03)
and age group (P = 0.04). The stage action of mammography, CBE, and BSE was 6.8%, 12.3%,
and 16.8%, respectively. Logistic regression model showed that variables such as age and family
history of breast cancer were highly significant related to mammography and also CBE. Knowledge
was also highly significant in mammography, CBE, and BSE. Education level in CBE, marital status
in BSE and mammography, and job in BSE were also significant (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals insufficient knowledge of female workers about breast cancer
and the negative influence of low knowledge on the practice of breast cancer screening behavior.
Therefore, the establishment and maintenance of regular educational courses for female employees
is essential.


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