Document Type : Original Article


1 Health Promotion Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Social Welfare Management, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Social Welfare Management Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Social Welfare Management, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Social Welfare Management Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran

5 Shoushtar Faculty of Medical Sciences, Shoushtar, Iran

6 Clinical Research Development Unit, Ayatollah Kashani Hospital, Shahrekord University of Medical Science, Shahrekord, Iran

7 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Health Management and Safety Promotion Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran


BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. Mammography
is the most sensitive and important method for screening and early diagnosis of breast cancer.
Considering the importance of using mammography in breast cancer screening, this study was
performed to evaluate mammographic determinants.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the cross‑sectional study, we surveyed 985 women over 40 years in
Tehran concerning demographic characteristics: age, socioeconomic status, a problem in the breast,
alcohol use, drug use, and health belief model. Logistic regression was used to identify determinant
factors associated with mammography performance.
RESULTS: The results of this study showed that 42.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 38, 45)
participant performed mammography at least once during their lifetime. Age (odds ratio [OR] = 4.252;
95% CI = 2.041–8.857); housing situation (OR = 1.706; 95% CI = 1.178–2.469); having breast
problems (OR = 5.224; 95% CI = 3.501–7.795); socioeconomic status (OR = 1.855; 95%
CI = 1.035–3.325); family income level (OR = 1.998; 95% CI = 1.028–3.884); alcohol
consumption (OR = 2.676; 95% CI = 1.344–5.328); smoking (OR = 2.824; 95% CI = 1.418–5.623);
self‑efficacy (OR = 1.935; 95% CI = 1.242–3.015); perceived barriers (OR = 2.017; 95%
CI = 1.348–3.019); self‑care (OR = 4.901; 95% CI = 3.152–7.620); perceived susceptibility (OR = 1.971;
95% CI = 1.271–3.057) and perceived severity (OR = 1.830; 95% CI = 1.170–2.860) were
mammography behaviors determinants.
CONCLUSION: The findings indicated that the rate of mammography screening among Tehranian
women is low and highlights the need for developing a comprehensive national breast cancer control
program, which should be considered as the priority for health‑care providers. Furthermore, the
identification of these factors can help to design an appropriate educational intervention that focuses
on the benefits of mammography screening.


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