Document Type : Original Article


1 Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mother and New Born Health Research Centre, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Yazd, Iran

2 MSc Student in Midwifery Counselling, Student Research Committee, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

3 Associated Professor, Biostatistics and Epidemiology Department, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran


BACKGROUND: Pregnancy alone is associated with many anxieties and worries for many women.
Prenatal diagnosis of fetal malformations is one of the most important anxious events for women.
Increasing knowledge empowers the person to identify the important issues and by increasing
understanding, creates a positive attitude in people. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate
the effect of education on the level of anxiety of pregnant mothers before invasive screening for fetal
abnormalities (amniocentesis).
MATERIALS AND METHODS : This is a quasi‑experimental study with two parallel designs in three
stages: Pretest (before intervention), posttest (after intervention), and after amniocentesis. This study
was performed on 80 pregnant women candidates for amniocentesis (40 pregnant women in the
control group and 40 pregnant women in the intervention group) referred to the perinatology clinic in
Yazd in 2020. Data collection tools were demographic and midwifery questionnaires and Spiel Berger
anxiety questionnaires. In the experimental group, the intervention was performed as group training
for 90 min immediately before amniocentesis. In the control group, only routine procedures (brief
description by a perinatologist during amniocentesis) were performed. SPSS software version 16
was used to analyze the data.
RESULTS: The mean age of the research units was 67/5 ± 5/33 years. The results of Mann–Whitney
intergroup test showed that the mean scores of overt anxiety before the intervention between the
control and intervention groups were not significant (P < 0.014) but were significant after training and
after amniocenter (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the results of Mann–Whitney group test showed that
the mean scores of overt anxiety in the intervention group before and after training were significant
(P < 0.001). Furthermore, the results of the control group showed significant results (P < 0.001). The
results of the independent t‑test showed that the mean scores of latent anxiety before the intervention
between the control and intervention groups were not significant (P < 0.194) but were significant
after the training (P < 0.57) but The results were not significant after amniocentesis (P < 0.216).
Furthermore, the results of paired t‑test within the group showed that the mean scores of overt
anxiety in the intervention group before and after training was significant (P < 0.001). Furthermore,
the results of the control group showed significant results (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study indicate the positive effect of education on anxiety of
pregnant women candidates for amniocentesis. The results also show the important role of education
on the psychological dimension of high‑risk pregnant women in relation to the consequences of
pregnancy and childbirth. According to the research results, it seems that education affects the
cognitive system and information processing by increasing people’s awareness of the amniocentesis
process and its consequences.


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