Document Type : Original Article


1 Public Health Department, Golestan University of Medical Sciences Golestan

2 Department of Public Health, School of Health, and Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran


Introduction: The goal of this study was to determine the association between constructs of
the Health Belief Model (HBM) (i.e., perceived susceptibility to health-related problems due to
smoking, perceived barriers to non-smoking, perceived benefits of non-smoking, perceived
self-efficacy to non-smoking, and cues to action of non-smoking) and cigarette smoking
among male pre-college students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 382
pre-college students was conducted in Isfahan, in 2010. The method of sampling was systematic
randomized and students were selected from eight schools. The instrument was developed by
the researchers based on the Health Belief Model. Statistical analyses were carried out using
SPSS.V.18, Chi-square, and independent t-tests. Results: The mean age of the students was
17.72 ± 0.62 years. Overall 7.2% of the subjects reported having smoked in the past 30 days
and 32.7% % of the samples reported ever having smoked in their life time. Results of the t-test
showed that there were significant differences in knowledge, perceived susceptibility (P =0.03),
benefits (t (246) = −2.51, P =0.01), self-efficacy (P < 0.001), and cues to action (P = 0.007),
between smokers and non-smokers Conclusion: These results suggested that the constructs of
HBM can be incorporated when examining the predictors of cigarette smoking and developing
smoking prevention programs among pre-college students. Furthermore, with a better
understanding of the factors affecting this complex behavior (cigarette smoking), it can be a
useful step to reduce the rate of death, costs, and also improve the community health outcomes.


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