Document Type : Original Article



Aims: The aims of this study were to determine fluoride concentration in drinking water and staple
foods consumed by residents of Dayyer port (Bushehr province, south of Iran) and to assess its
health risk via human intake in 2013. Materials and Methods: Health risk assessment due to
fluoride exposure via consumption of drinking water, date, vegetables and fish was conducted
in spring and summer of 2013 using the US‑EPA (United States—Environmental Protection
Agency) method, which considers hazard quotient (HQ) as a ratio of the estimated dose of a
contaminant to the reference dose. A fluoride ion‑selective electrode (ISE) measured the fluoride
contents of food samples. The sodium‑2‑(parasulfophenyl largo)‑1,8‑dihydroxy‑3,6‑naphtnalene
disulfonate colorimetric method (SPADNS) was used to determine fluoride concentration in
water samples. Results: The total estimated oral intake of fluoride for children in summer and
spring were 120.6 and 145.6 µg/kg/day, respectively. These values for adults were 99.2 and 112
µg/kg/day. This survey demonstrated that drinking water was the most important contributor of
dietary fluoride intake in the study area. Conclusion: HQ values for adults and children were >1
which approves that a potential health risk of fluorosis can exist. The recommendations for the
study area are supplying drinking water from alternative sources and defluoridation of drinking
water by an adsorption technique and membrane filtration, respectively. Furthermore, people are
suggested to have a good nutrition (especially rich of vitamin C) to reduce the risk of fluorosis.


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