1 Department of Health Management, Faculty of Health Sciences, Sabahattin Zaim University, Istanbul, Turkey

2 Department of Health Management, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey

3 Department of Medical Services and Techniques, Tunceli Vocatıonal School, Munzur University, Tunceli, Turkey

4 Department of Health Management, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey


BACKGROUND/AIM: The COVID‑19 pandemic has created a long period of stress for people
worldwide and has significantly affected sleep duration. The pandemic revealed new stress factors
that are likely to affect sleep. Uncertainty is a factor that leads to anxiety and depression, which
affects sleep. It should also be noted that reductions in sleep quality rather than sleep duration are
associated with negative consequences on mental health. This study aims to investigate online that
how this situation affected university students.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research, with a descriptive study design, was conducted in
Turkey between June 01, 2021 and July 30, 2021. The sample included 604 people who accepted
voluntary participation, chosen by the random selection method. In the study, sociodemographic
information form, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), morningness–eveningness questionnaire
scale (MEQ Scale), Beck depression inventory (BDI), and Beck anxiety inventory (BAI) were used as
data collection tools. Pearson correlation analysis was utilized to examine the relationship between
the scales. Multiple regression analysis was performed to investigate the role of morningness–
eveningness, anxiety, depression, and insomnia severity on sleep quality.
RESULTS: Sleep quality was negatively correlated with morningness–eveningness scores (r = –0.32,
P < 0.01), and positively and significantly related with anxiety (r = 0.43, P < 0.01), depression (r = 0.40,
P < 0.01) and insomnia severity (r = 0.55, P < 0.01). According to regression coefficients, while
anxiety (ꞵ = 0.041, P < 0.001) and insomnia severity scores (ꞵ = 0.226, P < 0.001) positively predicted
sleep quality, depression did not predict it significantly (ꞵ = 0.009, P > 0.05). A significant difference was
found in sleep quality according to morning, evening, and intermediate types (F = 27.401, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Events related to the COVID‑19 pandemic are associated with reduced sleep quality
in connection with increasing negative moods. Considering the importance of sleep for a healthy
life, efforts should be made to raise awareness about this issue and to provide psychological help
to affected individuals.


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