Document Type : Original Article


Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey


BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus‑2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) causes COVID‑19. 
On March 11, 2020, the WHO declared it a pandemic. SARS‑CoV‑2 indicates that it poses a 
significant threat to public health and global economy. The aim of the study was to determine (a) 
patient characteristics, (b) demographic characteristics, (c) comorbidities, diagnostic methods used, 
treatment, and outcomes, and (d) mortality rates of patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 352 hospitalized adult 
patients from Baskent University Hospital in Ankara who were confirmed cases of COVID‑19 between 
March 2020 and March 2021. SPSS v. 14.0 was used for statistical analysis.
RESULTS: Out of 352 patients, 55 died (males: 37, females: 18), while 297 survived (males: 162, females: 
135). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), coronary artery 
disease (CAD), cancer, Vitamin D deficiency, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Comorbidities 
associated with mortality rate were obesity (33%) (P = 0.118), Vitamin D deficiency (28%) (P = 0.009), 
DM (25%) (P = 0.004), CAD (21.2%) (P = 0.142), cancer (20.9%) (P = 0.084), and HT (16.6%) (P = 0.90). 
Normal ward admission resulted in death in 67.3% and survival in 93.9% (P = 0.001), intensive care 
unit (ICU) admission resulted in death in 69.1% and survival in 18.5% (P = 0.001), and oxygen therapy 
was used in 80% death and survival in 39.4% (P = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that male gender, advanced age, and presence of comorbidities 
in COVID 19 patients are at higher risk for severe disease, ICU admission, and death. We emphasize 
that morbidity and mortality can be reduced by early and comprehensive identification of risk factors 
and the warning systems that will meet the ICU needs of these patients.


1. Saji JA, Babu BP, Sebastian SR. Social influence of COVID‑19: 
An observational study on the social impact of post‑COVID‑19 
lockdown on everyday life in Kerala from a community 
perspective. J Educ Health Promot 2020;9:360.
2. Irani M, Pakfetrat A, Mask MK. Novel coronavirus disease 2019 
and perinatal outcomes. J Educ Health Promot 2020;9:78.
3. World Health Organization. Modes of Transmission of 
Virus Causing COVID‑19: İmplications for IPC Precaution 
Recommendations; 2020. Available from: 29 March 2020. https://
4. Lauer SA, Grantz KH, Bi Q, Jones FK, Zheng Q, Meredith HR, et al.
The ıncubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) 
from publicly reported confirmed cases: Estimation and 
application. Ann Intern Med 2020;172:577‑82.
5. Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of 
probable bat origin. Nature 2020;588:E6.
6. Bulut C, Kato Y. Epidemiology of COVID‑19 Turk J Med Sci 
7. Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of, and important lessons 
from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) outbreak in China: 
Summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for 
Disease Control, and Prevention. JAMA 2020;323:1239‑42.
8. Ni W, Yang X, Yang D, Bao J, Li R, Xiao Y, et al. Role of 
angiotensin‑converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in COVID‑19. Crit Care 
9. Bienvenu LA, Noonan J, Wang X, Peter K. Higher mortality of 
COVID‑19 in males: Sex differences in immune response and 
cardiovascular comorbidities. Cardiovasc Res 2020;116:2197‑206.
10. Alimohamadi Y, Sepandi M, Taghdir M, Hosamirudsari H. 
Determine the most common clinical symptoms in 
COVID‑19 patients: A systematic review and meta‑analysis. 
J Prev Med Hyg 2020;61:E304‑12.
11. Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course 
and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID‑19 
in Wuhan, China: A retrospective cohort study. Lancet 
12. Kumar A, Arora A, Sharma P, Anikhindi SA, Bansal N, 
Singla V, et al. Is diabetes mellitus associated with mortality, and 
severity of COVID‑19? A meta‑analysis. Diabetes Metab Syndr 
13. Barman HA, Atici A, Sahin I, Alici G, Aktas Tekin E, Baycan ÖF,
et al. Prognostic significance of cardiac injury in COVID‑19patients 
with and without coronary artery disease. Coron Artery Dis 
14. Karahan S, Katkat F. Impact of serum 25(OH) vitamin D level on 
mortality in patients with COVID‑19 in Turkey. J Nutr Health 
Aging 2021;25:189‑96.
15. Myint PK, Carter B, Barlow‑Pay F, Short R, Einarsson AG, Bruce E,
et al. Routine use of immunosuppressants is associated with 
mortality in hospitalised patients with COVID‑19. Ther Adv Drug 
Saf 2021;12:1-17.
16. Ren L, Yu S, Xu W, Overton JL, Chiamvimonvat N, Thai PN. Lack 
of association of antihypertensive drugs with the risk and severity 
of COVID‑19: A meta‑analysis. J Cardiol 2021;77:482‑91.
17. Rivera‑Caravaca JM, Núñez‑Gil IJ, Vivas D, Viana‑Llamas MC, 
Uribarri A, Becerra‑Muñoz VM, et al. Clinical profile and 
prognosis in patients on oral anticoagulation before admission 
for COVID‑19. Eur J Clin Invest 2021;51:e13436.
18. Tremblay D, van Gerwen M, Alsen M, Thibaud S, Kessler A, 
Venugopal S, et al. Impact of anticoagulation prior to COVID‑19 
infection: A propensity score‑matched cohort study. Blood 
19. Cheng L, Li H, Li L, Liu C, Yan S, Chen H, et al. Ferritin in the 
coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19): A systematic review and 
meta‑analysis. J Clin Lab Anal 2020;34:e23618.
20. Illg Z, Muller G, Mueller M, Nippert J, Allen B. Analysis of 
absolute lymphocyte count in patients with COVID‑19. Am J 
Emerg Med 2021;46:16‑9.
21. Çinkooğlu A, Hepdurgun C, Bayraktaroğlu S, Ceylan N, Savaş R. 
CT imaging features of COVID‑19 pneumonia: İnitial experience 
from Turkey. Diagn Interv Radiol 2020;26:308‑14.
22. Long C, Xu H, Shen Q, Zhang X, Fan B, Wang C, et al. Diagnosis 
of the coronavirus disease (COVID‑19): RRT‑PCR or CT?. Eur J 
Radiol 2020;126:108961.
23. Lim ZJ, Subramaniam A, Ponnapa Reddy M, Blecher G, Kadam U, 
Afroz A, et al. Case fatality rates for patients with COVID‑19 
requiring ınvasive mechanical ventilation. A meta‑analysis. Am 
J Respir Crit Care Med 2021;203:54‑66.
24. LangfordBJ, SoM, RaybardhanS, LeungV, Soucy JR, WestwoodD,
et al. Antibiotic prescribing in patients with COVID‑19: Rapid 
review and meta‑analysis. Clin Microbiol Infect 2021;27:520‑31.
25. Mikulska M, Nicolini LA, Signori A, Di Biagio A, Sepulcri C, 
Russo C, et al. Tocilizumab and steroid treatment in patients with 
COVID‑19 pneumonia. PLoS One 2020;15:e0237831.
26. Bikdeli B, Talasaz AH, Rashidi F, Bakhshandeh H, Rafiee F, 
Rezaeifar P, et al. Intermediate‑dose versus standard‑dose 
prophylactic anticoagulation in patients with COVID‑19 
admitted to the Intensive Care Unit: 90‑day results from 
the INSPIRATION R, andomized trial. Thromb Haemost 
27. Robba C, Battaglini D, Pelosi P, Rocco PR. Multiple organ 
dysfunction in SARS‑CoV‑2: MODS‑CoV‑2. Expert Rev Respir 
Med 2020;14:865‑8.
28. Liu D, Wang Q, Zhang H, Cui L, Shen F, Chen Y, et al. Viral 
sepsis is a complication in patients with novel corona virus 
disease (COVID‑19). Med Drug Discov 2020;8:100057.