1 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Child Growth and Development Research Center, Primordial Prevention of NonCommunicable Diseases Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3 Health Information Technology Research Center, School of Management and Medical Information Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Today, the ability of the organizations to successfully knowledge management and sharing can 
help them in better performance. Effective knowledge sharing (KS) in the clinical context provides 
better clinical decisions and improves the quality of care services. This systematic review will be 
conducted to identify the factors related to the clinical KS (CKS). This systematic literature review will 
be conducted to search the published documents about the affecting factors on the (clinical) KS. To 
this end, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, Cochrane, Embase, SID, Magiran, IranDoc, 
and ISC will be thoroughly assessed with considered keywords and search strategy. No time limit 
will be considered and all relevant documents published will be evaluated until the start date of the 
search. To the best of our knowledge, no systematic review study has been conducted on the factors 
related to CKS and our research will try to comprehensively extract the effective factors in this topic. 
Identifying the factors affecting CKS will lead to transparency in the exchange and interpretation of 
clinical knowledge in clinical care delivery and making the best clinical decisions as well as improving 
the quality of clinical care. It will also provide a condition to facilitate the delivery of more effective 
clinical education for policymakers in the field of clinical education.


1. Kazemi M, Vahidi‑motlagh T, Vahidi‑Motlagh S A review on 
effective of effector factors to knowledge share in the Iranian 
virtual social. Public Manage Res 2014;7:107‑28.
2. Delkir K. Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice. 
Massachusetts: Butterworth‑Heinemann; 2005. p. 44.
3. DavenportTH, PrusakL. Working Knowledge: How Organizations 
Manage What They Know. Brighton, Massachusetts: Harvard 
Business School Press; 2000. p. 56.
4. Hinds PJ, Patterson M, Pfeffer J. Bothered by abstraction: The 
effect of expertise on knowledge transfer and subsequent novice 
performance. J Appl Psychol 2001;86:1232‑43.
5. Zhang J, Faerman SR. The nature of knowledge and its influence 
on knowledge sharing practice: Experiences from building the 
MACROS system. In: Proceedings of the 37th Annual Hawaii 
International Conference on System Sciences. New York: Institute 
of Electrical and Electronics Engineers;2004. Available from: [Last accessed 
on 2021 Dec 25].
6. Sundaresan S, Zhang Z. Facilitating knowledge transfer in 
organizations through incentive alignment and IT investment. 
In: 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. 
New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; 2004.
7. Kim S, Lee H. Employee knowledge sharing capabilities in 
public & private organizations: Does organizational context 
matter? In: Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawaii International 
Conference on System Sciences. New York: Institute of Electrical 
and Electronics Engineers;2005.
8. Chaudhry AS. Knowledge sharing practices in Asian institutions: 
A multi‑cultural perspective from Singapore. In: Proceedings 
of World Library and Information Congress: 71st IFLA General 
Conference and Council; “Libraries ‑ A voyage of discovery”. 
Oslo: International Federation of Library Associations and 
Institutions;2005. Available from:
ifla71/papers/066e‑Chaudhry.pdf.[Last accessed on 2021 Dec 25].
9. Arthur JB, Huntley CL. Ramping up the organizational 
learning curve: Assessing the impact of deliberate learning on 
organizational performance under gain sharing. Acad Manag J 
10. Lin HF. Knowledge sharing and firm innovation capability: An 
empirical study. Int J Manpow 2007;28:315‑32.
11. Nemati‑Anaraki L. Inter‑organizational knowledge sharing: 
A comprehensive model. J Mod Med Inf Sci 2015;1:10‑24.
12. Hossein Gholi Zadeh R, Mir Kamali S. Key affecting factors on knowledge sharing; Case study‑ Ferdowsi University (Faculty of 
Educational Sciences and Psychology). JIran High Educ 2010;3:63.
13. Keikha F. Interpersonal trust factors affecting members’ 
knowledge sharing behavior in virtual communities. Iran J Inform 
Process Manage 2018;34:275‑300.
14. Taghipour M, Mahboobi M, Gharagozlou H. The impact of ICT 
on knowledge sharing obstacles in knowledge management 
process (Including Case‑Study). Iran J Inform Process Manage 
15. Sahebalzamani M, Adhami moghadam F, Ahmadi SH, Zare M, 
Hamzepour H. The relationship between learning styles with 
evidence‑based function in clinical assistants of Kermanshah 
university of medical sciences hospitals. J Jundishapur Educ Dev 
16. Taghizadeh H, Ziaei Hajipirloo M. Presenting a model of 
relationships between knowledge sharing components in 
educational institutions with an interpretive structural modeling 
approach (case study). J Exec Manage 2014;5:3.
17. Lin TC, Lai MC, Yang SW. Factors influencing physicians’ 
knowledge sharing on web medical forums. Health Informatics 
J 2016;22:594‑607.
18. Zhou L, Nunes MB. Barriers to knowledge sharing in Chinese 
healthcare referral services: An emergent theoretical model. Glob 
Health Action 2016;9:29964.
19. Permwonguswa S, Khuntia J, Yim D, Gregg D, Kathuria A. 
Knowledge sharing in a health infomediary: Role of self‑concept, 
emoti.onal empowerment, and self‑esteem. Heal Syst 
20. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG; PRISMA Group. 
Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta‑analyses: 
The PRISMA statement. J Clin Epidemiol 2009;62:1006‑12.