Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Occupational Health and Safety, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of public Health, School of Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences


BACKGROUND: Even in an era of automation and digitalization, Manual Material Handling (MMH) 
can be called the most common industrial task. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence 
of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) induced by manual handling tasks on the workers of a printing 
factory in Tehran in 2017 and then to evaluate the effectiveness of a training intervention based on 
health promotion.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study had quasi experimental design and was conducted on 
40 men. First, demographic data were collected and the Nordic questionnaire was used to determine 
the prevalence of MSDs in workers. Then, MMH tasks were assessed using Manual Handling 
Assessment Chart (MAC). A short training course was designed to promote health. Finally, the same 
MMH tasks were re‑evaluated 3 months after the training intervention.
RESULTS: Among the various tasks, the highest prevalence of work‑related MSDs (WMSDs) was 
observed in the lower back (77.5%) and shoulder (62.5%). Based on the final scores of the MAC 
method, the jobs that received the highest scores were cutting (individual lifting), with 22 scores and 
action level “immediately necessary,” cutting (individual load carrying), with 15 scores with action 
level “urgently needed.” Arranging the forms (individual lifting) received a similar score. After the 
training intervention, the estimated risk level reduced by 12, 9, and 6 points, respectively, reaching 
a safe action level, i.e., “necessary in the future.”
CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that educational interventions might be equally effective in 
low‑technology work environments. More in general, the MAC method can be used to make informed 
planning of educational interventions against WMSDs risk in MSDs. This health promotion approach 
is critical for care of human recourse.


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