Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Biostatistics, Center Addiction Research Institutes, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

2 Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3 Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


BACKGROUND: Daily consumption of fruit and vegetable (F and V) can effectively reduce the 
risk factors of cardiovascular diseases; therefore it is necessary to identify the factors affecting 
this behavior. This study aimed to determine the Predictive Power of Pender’s Health promotion 
model (HPM) constructs in F and V consumption behavior and the effects of some background 
variables on this behavior.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive‑correlation study was conducted on 418 employees 
working in different offices of Qaemshahr, Mazandaran Province from April 8, 2019, to July 23, 2019. 
The participants filled out a questionnaire about perceived F and V Consumption behavior based 
on Pender’s HPM Constructs. The data were statistically analyzed by descriptive statistics and 
parametric tests, including the Pearson correlation, Independent– Sample t‑test, One‑Way analysis 
of variance test, and multiple linear regression, in SPSS‑22.
RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 40.25 ± 7.56 years. The results showed that F 
and V consumption behavior was positively correlated with some constructs of Pender’s HPM 
including, behavioral outcome (r = 0.51, P < 0.001), previous related behavior (r = 0.48, P < 0.001), 
commitment to action (r = 0.47, P < 0.001), perceived self‑efficacy and behavior‑related 
emotions (r = 0.39, P < 0.001). Behavioral outcome alone explained 26% of the dependent variable 
changes (F and V consumption behavior). The results also indicated that there was a significant 
relationship between gender and F and V consumption behavior (P = 0.01).
CONCLUSION: The study findings demonstrated that some of Pender’s HPM Constructs could predict 
F and V consumption behavior. Behavioral outcome alone was a strong predictor of this behavior. 
Therefore, in addition to background variables, these constructs should be taken into account in the 
development of training interventions and courses.


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