Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Community Medicine, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Swami Rama Himalayan University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

2 Department of Health, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India


BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a considerably common 
childhood‑onset neurodevelopmental disorder, often associated with socio‑behavioral and academic 
difficulties. There is an increased risk for development of a range of future problems such as 
psychiatric disorders, difficulties in employment, and relationships. The aim of this study was to know 
the prevalence and determinants of ADHD among primary school children in district Dehradun and 
to assess the learning difficulties and classroom behavior in these students.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross‑sectional study, overall, 228 students (aged 6–12 years) 
studying in a primary school were assessed for ADHD after seeking the written informed consent from 
their parents. The data were analyzed using Excel sheet and SPSS software (22.0 version). For all 
qualitative measures, frequency and percentages were calculated, and for quantitative measures, 
mean and standard deviation were calculated. For analysis of categorical values, Chi‑square test 
was used. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: The prevalence of ADHD was found to be 11.8% based on the teacher tool only and 
1.75% based on the parent and teacher tools combined. ADHD was found to be significantly more 
in males. Inattention was the most prevalent subtype of ADHD, and children screened positive for 
ADHD had significant learning difficulties at various levels.
CONCLUSION: The possibility of ADHD in students with academic difficulties should not be ignored 
as children with ADHD usually face significant problems at school such as learning difficulties and 
have been shown to be at increased risk for a broad range of negative outcomes. Early identification 
and treatment of ADHD can significantly reduce the rates of some of these poor outcomes. Screening 
these children in the early years will help the parents, children, teachers, and community at large.


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