Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran

2 Department of Anesthesiology, School of Paramedical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran


BACKGROUND: One of the important causes of anxiety in COVID‑19 disease is the inability to
regulate emotion and lack of self‑control during threatening conditions. The psychotherapy technique
has been effective in reducing these symptoms. Therefore, this study attempted to evaluate the
effectiveness of compassion‑based therapy on emotion regulation and self‑control in patients with
COVID‑19 after discharge.
MATERIALS AND METHOD: It was a quasi‑experimental pretest‑posttest study with a control group.
The statistical population consisted of 30 men (15 in each group) who were in the quarantine period
of COVID‑19 disease. Available sampling was used and the participants were randomly assigned
to experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, compassion‑based treatment was
performed in 10 sessions of 90 min. Tanji’s self‑control questionnaire and Garnofsky’s Emotion
Regulation questionnaires were used. Data analysis were performed using SPSS 21 software and
multivariate analysis of covariance.
RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the mean scores of emotion regulation and
self‑control variables in the experimental and control groups (P < 0.001). The effect of this treatment
on increasing the emotion regulation score was 49% and on increasing the self‑control score was 37%.
CONCLUSION: Compassion‑based therapy can increase cognitive regulation and improve self‑control
in patients with COVID‑19 disease. It is suggested that this intervention can be used in psychological
treatment programs


1. Mahase E. China coronavirus: WHO declares international
emergency as death toll exceeds 200. BMJ 2020;368:m408.doi:
2. Dehaghi BF, Ghodrati‑Torbati A, Teimori G, Ghavamabadi LI,
Jamshidnezhad A. Face masks vs. COVID‑19: A systematic
review. InvestEducEnferm 2020;38:e13.doi: 10.17533/udea.iee.
3. Sarmadi M, Ghodrati‑Torbati A, Gazerani A, Yaghoobi H,
Bakhtiari‑Dovvombaygi H. Association of HIV/AIDS and
COVID‑19 variables: An ecological study. HIV AIDS Rev
4. SeyyedmoharramiI, Dehaghi BF, Abbaspour S, Zandi A, Tatari M,
Teimori G, et al. The relationship between organizational climate,
organizational commitment and job burnout: Case study among
employees of the university of medical sciences. Open Public
Health J 2019;12:94‑100.
5. Rahmani R, Sargazi V, Jalali MS, Babamiri M. Relationship
between COVID‑19‑caused anxiety and job burnout among
hospital staff: A cross‑sectional study in the Southeast of Iran.
J Occup Hyg Eng2021;7:61‑9.
6. Shojaei A, Salari P. COVID‑19 and the “stay at home”
recommendation: An ethnographic study. J Educ Health Promot
7. Hyland P, Shevlin M, McBride O, Murphy J, Karatzias T,
Bentall RP, et al. Anxiety and depression in the Republic of
Ireland during the COVID-19 pandemic. Acta Psychiatr Scand
8. Abbaspour S, Tajik R, Atif K, Eshghi H, Teimori G,
Ghodrati‑Torbati A, Zandi A. Prevalence and correlates of mental
health status among pre‑hospital healthcare staff. Clinical practice
and epidemiology in mental health: CP & EMH. 2020;16:17.
9. Van der Linden D, Pekaar KA, Bakker AB, Schermer JA,
Vernon PA, Dunkel CS, et al. Overlap between the general factor
of personality and emotional intelligence: A meta‑analysis.
Psychological Bulletin 2017;143:36‑52.
10. Restubog SLD, Ocampo ACG, Wang L. Taking Control Amidst
the Chaos: Emotion Regulation During the COVID‑19 Pandemic.
Elsevier; 2020. p. 103440.
11. Iman S, Khaula A, Maryam T, Sedigheh A, Anahita Z,
Gholamheidar TB, Abbas GT. Accomplices of job burnout among
employees of a medical university. Russian Open Medical Journal.
12. Mousavi SF, RamezaniR. The prediction of post‑traumatic growth
based on memorials symptoms and rumination in women with
cancer. J Health Psychol. 2018;7:146‑59.
13. Domaradzka E, Fajkowska M. Cognitive emotion regulation  strategies in anxiety and depression understood as types
of personality. FrontPsychol 2018;9:856.doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.
14. Ezazi Bojnourdi E, Ghadampour S, Moradi Shakib A,
Ghazbanzadeh R. Predicting corona anxiety based on cognitive
emotion regulation strategies, health hardiness and death anxiety
in diabetic patients. Iran J Psychiatr Nurs 2020;8:34‑44.
15. von Leupoldt A, Chan P‑YS, Esser RW, Davenport PW. Emotions
and neural processing of respiratory sensations investigated
with respiratory‑related evoked potentials. PsychosomMed
16. Ahmedani BK, Peterson EL, Wells KE, Rand CS, Williams LK.
Asthma medication adherence: The role of God and other
health locus of control factors. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol
17. Culpin I, Stapinski L, Miles ÖB, Araya R, Joinson C. Exposure
to socioeconomic adversity in early life and risk of depression at
18 years: The mediating role of locus of control. JAffect Disord
18. Richardson A, Field T, Newton R, Bendell D. Locus of control
and prenatal depression. Infant Behav Dev 2012;35:662‑8.
19. Lehrer PM, Karavidas MK, Lu S‑E, Feldman J, Kranitz L,
Abraham S, et al. Psychological treatment of comorbid asthma and
panic disorder: A pilot study. JAnxiety Disord. 2008;22:671‑83.
20. Deshmukh VM, Toelle BG, Usherwood T, O’Grady B, Jenkins CR.
Anxiety, panic and adult asthma: A cognitive‑behavioral
perspective. RespirMed 2007;101:194‑202.
21. Sánchez‑Román S, Velasco‑Furlong L, Rodríguez‑Carvajal R,
Baranda‑Sepúlveda J. Effectiveness of a cognitive‑behavioural
program to reduce anxiety in medically ill patients. RevInvest
Clin 2006;58:540‑46.
22. Yang Y, Fletcher K, Michalak EE, Murray G. An investigation of
self‑compassion and nonattachment to self in people with bipolar
disorder. JAffect Disord 2020;262:43‑8.
23. García‑CampayoJ, Navarro‑GilM, DemarzoM. Attachment‑based
compassion therapy. Mindfulness & Compassion. 2016;1 (2):68‑74.
24. Grodin J, Clark JL, Kolts R, Lovejoy TI. Compassion focused
therapy for anger: A pilot study of a group intervention for
veterans with PTSD. J Contextual Behav Sci 2019;13:27‑33.
25. Seekis V, Bradley GL, Duffy AL. Does a Facebook‑enhanced
mindful self‑compassion intervention improve body image? An
evaluation study. Body Image 2020;34:259‑69.
26. Gilbert P. The origins and nature of compassion focused therapy.
Br J Clin Psychol 2014;53:6‑41.
27. Lincoln TM, Hohenhaus F, Hartmann M. Can paranoid thoughts
be reduced by targeting negative emotions and self‑esteem?
An experimental investigation of a brief compassion‑focused
intervention. Cogn Ther Res 2013;37:390‑402.
28. Neff KD. Self-compassion, self-esteem, and well-being.
SocPersonal Psychol Compass 2011;5:1‑12.
29. Taheri Daghiyan A, Qasemi Motlagh M, Mehdian H. The
effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy on anxiety and
rumination in depressed patients. Med JMashhad UnivMed Sci
30. Ghodrati Torbati A, Nejat H, Toozandehjani H, Samari AA,
Akbari Amarghan H. Effect of compassion‑focused therapy (CFT)
on blood cortisol and cognitive‑emotion regulation in drug
abusers. Jundishapur Journal of Health Sciences. 2020;12(1).
31. Tangney JP, Boone AL, Baumeister RF. High self‑control
predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades,
and interpersonal success. InSelf‑regulation and self‑control
2018 Jan 19 (pp. 173‑212). Routledge.
32. Garnefski N, Kraaij V. Cognitive emotion regulation
questionnaire–development of a short 18‑item version(CERQ‑short).
Personality and individual differences. 2006;41(6):1045‑53.
33. Mousavimoghadam SR, Houri S, Omidi A, Zahirikhah N.
Evaluation of relationship between intellectual intelligence
and self‑control, and defense mechanisms in the third year of
secondary school girls. Medical Science Journal of Islamic Azad
Univesity‑Tehran Medical Branch. 2015;25(1):59‑64.
34. Hasani J, Azadfalah P, Rasoulzade Tabatabaei K, Ashayeri H. The
assessment of cognitive emotion regulation strategies according
to neuroticism and extraversion personality dimensions. Adv
Cogn Sci 2009;10:1‑13.
35. Yazdanbakhsh K, Karami J, Derikvand F. Effectiveness of
compassion‑focused therapy on cognitive emotion regulation
in high school girl students bullying. J Psychol Stud
36. Barchakh Z, Mardani Valandani Z, Khorvash F. The effectiveness
of compassion‑focused therapy for improving emotional control
and reducing the severity of pain in migraine patients. Pract Clin
Psychol 2021;9:51‑60.
37. Izanloo M, Peyvandi P, Borjali A, Sirafi MR, Mohsenzadeh Y.
Comparison of the effectiveness of compassion‑focused therapy
and mindfulness‑based stress reduction on cognitive emotion
regulation among patients with coronary heart disease. J Vessels
Circ 2020;1:31‑9.
38. Bluth K, Neff KD. New frontiers in understanding the benefits of
self‑compassion. Self Identity 2018;17:605‑8.
39. Arch JJ, Landy LN, Brown KW. Predictors and moderators
of biopsychological social stress responses following brief
self‑compassion meditation training. Psychoneuroendocrinology
40. Arimitsu K, Hofmann SG. Cognitions as mediators in the
relationship between self‑compassion and affect. PersIndividDif
41. Noroozi F, Ghorban Shiroodi S, Khalaj AR. Effectiveness of
compassion‑focused therapy on self‑control and flexibility of
body image in obese patients volunteering for sleeve and gastric
bypass surgery. J Res Behav Sci 2021;18:493‑500.
42. Ghodrati TA, Nejat H, Toozandehjani H, Samari AA, Akbari AH.
Comparing the effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy
and compassion focused therapy on blood cortisol levels and
self‑control in drug abusers. J Torbat Heydariyeh Univ Med Sci
43. Martin RD, Kennett DJ, Hopewell NM. Examining the importance
of academic‑specific self‑compassion in the academic self‑control
model. JSoc Psychol 2019;159:676‑91.
44. Thomason S, Moghaddam N. Compassion-focused therapies
for self-esteem: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol
Psychother 2021;94:737‑59.
45. Ghadrdoost B, Sadeghipour P, Amin A, Bakhshandeh H, Noohi F,
Maleki M, et al. Validity and reliability of a virtual education
satisfaction questionnaire from the perspective of cardiology
residents during the COVID‑19 pandemic. J Edu Health Promot