Document Type : Original Article



BACKGROUND: The impact of Coronavirus Disease‑19 on peoples’ life has become evident.
Recently, sport activities are important in improving individual health and their well‑being. The aim of
this study is to investigate the effect of using mobile phone fitness applications on some characteristics
of physical fitness and psychological well‑being of female university students.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive study design was implemented using a survey which
was adapted to collect data from a sample of 50 female participants within the age of 18 to 19 years.
As for the results, the participants indicated that they used physical fitness application by smart
phone regularly during COVID‑19.
RESULTS: The results also illustrate that there was a significant difference on the study variables
based on the study groups and test time. The study results extend literature concerning sport activities
participation and promoting positive well‑being during COVID‑19 pandemic.
CONCLUSION: The study indicated a significant difference of the application on physical fitness
and psychological well‑being among the participants. Based on the results, the study recommended
to organize several sport activities among students and encourage them to use smart phones for
positive purposes. Finally, practical implications are outlined.


1. Rasheed A, Abduljawad R, Mabrouk S, Jdaitawi M,
Abdulmonem S. Physical fitness training program using electronic
simulation games to foster psychological health among university
students during COVID‑19 pandemic. Int J Hum Mov Sports Sci
2. Available from:
ar#/ [Last accessed on 2020 Aug 03].
3. Available from:
aspx. [Last accessed on 2020 Aug 04].
4. Saladino V, Algeri D, Auriemma V. The psychological and social
impact of COVD‑19: New perspectives of well‑being. Front
5. Orgiles M, Morales A, Delvecchio E, Mazzeschi C. Immediate
psychological effects of the COVID‑19 quarantine in youth from
Italy and Spain. PsyArXiv 2020. doi: 10.31234/OSF.IO/5BPFZ.
6. Samisha B. Practicing entertainment activities and its relation to
achieve entertainment sport awareness and well‑being among
university students. Albaheth Journal of Human and Social
Sciences 2019;11:125‑34.
7. Battaglia C, DiCagno A, Fiorilli G, Borrione A, Baralla F, Pigozzi F.
Participation in a 9‑month selected physical exercise programme
enhances psychological well‑being in a prison population crime.
Behavior Mental Health 2015;25:343‑54.
8. Lawton E, Brymer E, Clough P, Denovan P. The relationship
between the physical activity environment, nature relatedness,
anxiety and the psychological well‑being benefit of regular
exercises. FrontPsychol 2017;8:1058.
9. Larson M, Elbe M, Madsen M, Madsen M, Ørntoft C, Ryom K,
et al. An 11‑week school‑based health education through football
programme improves health knowledge related to hygiene,
nutrition, physical activity and well‑being and its fun. A scaled
up, cluster‑RCT with over 3000 Danish school children aged
10‑12 years old. Br J Sports Med 2021;55:906‑11.
10. Zhang Z, Chen W. A systematic review of measure for
psychological well‑being in physical activity studies and
identification of critic issues. J Affect Disord2019;256:473‑85.
11. Kang L, Ma S, Chen M. Impact on mental health and perceptions
of psychological care among medical and nursing staff in Wuhan
during 2019 novel coronavirus disease outbreak: A cross‑sectional
study. Brain Behavior Immun 2020;87:11‑7.
12. Xiao H, Zhang Y, Kong D, Li S, Yang N. The effect of social
support on sleep quality of medical staff treating patients with
coronavirus disease 2019 in January and February 2020 in China.
Med Sci Monit 2020;26:e923549.
13. Liu S, Yang I, Zhang C, Ziang Y, Liu Z, Hu S, et al. online mental health services in China during the COVID‑19 outbreak. Lancet
14. Zhao X, Snoswell C, Harding L. The role of telehealth in reducing
the mental health burden from COVID‑19. Telemed. E Health
15. Direito A, Yannan J, Robyn W, Ralph M. Smartphone apps to
improve fitness and increase physical activity among young
people: Protocol of the Apps for improving fitness randomized
controlled trail. BMC Public Health 2015;15:635.
16. Tu R, HsiehP, Feng W. Walking for fun or for likes? The impacts of
different gameification orientations of fitness apps on consumers
physical activities. Sport Management Review 2018;22:682‑93.
17. Dhiman N, Neelika A, Dogra N, Gupta. A Consumer adoption
of smartphone fitness apps: An extended UTAUT2 perspective.
J Indian Bus Res 2019;1755‑4195.doi: 10.1108/JIBR‑05‑2018‑0158.
18. StragierJ, Evens T, Mechant P. Broadcast yourself: An exploratory
study of sharing physical activity on social networking sites.
Media Int Aust 2019;155:120‑29.
19. Chung A, Griffin A, Selezneva D, Gotz D. Health and fitness
apps for hands‑free voice‑activated assistants: Content analysis.
JMIRMhealth Uhealth 2018;6:e174.
20. Romeo A, Edney S, Plotnikoff R, Curtis R, Ryan J, Sanders I, et al.
Can smartphone apps increase physical activity? Systematic
review and meta‑analysis. J Med Int Res 2019;21:e12053.
21. Mcgill N. Jury still out on if fitness apps improve health. Am
erican Journal of Public Health 2018;106:3.
22. Ibrahim S. Well‑being measurement for university students.
Psychology Counseling Center Journal 2019;36:644.
23. Rodriguez‑Ayllon M, Cadenas‑Sánchez C, Estévez‑López F,
Muñoz NE, Mora‑Gonzalez J, Migueles JH, et al. Role of physical
activity and sedentary behavior in the mental health of
preschoolers, children and adolescents: A systematic review and
meta‑analysis. Sport Med 2019;49:9.
24. Polevoy G. The influence of speed and strength training at
school on the indicators of attention switching in children aged
13‑14 years with different typologies. Journal of Education and
Health Promotion 2022;11:23.
25. Jdaitawi M. Does flipped learning promote positive emotions
in science education? A comparison between traditional and
flipped classroom approaches. Electronic Journal of e-Learning
26. Mosalanejad L, Abdollahifard S. testing adaptation and
psychometric properties of survey instrument for students’
perspectives on e‑professionalism and social media in Iranian
students: Corona crisis and medical education. Journal of Education
and Health Promotion 2022;11. doi: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_1666_20.