Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


BACKGROUND: In recent decades, the prevention of domestic violence against women (DVAW)
has been considered a priority for women’s health in many countries. Identifying factors related to
DVAW by their husbands or intimate partner can promise prevention and decrease in prevalence.
The objective of this study was to examine and compare associated factors of domestic violence
based on demographic characteristics and some life skills.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross‑sectional study was conducted in Abadan, Iran. 640
couples completed questionnaires including demographic characteristics, communication skills,
anger management, and problem‑solving skill. In addition, women completed the questionnaire on
domestic violence. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (t‑test and one‑way analysis of
variance) and multiple linear regression.
RESULTS: Approximately 57% of the women in this study have been subjected to psychological
violence in their lifetime by their husbands. The result of multiple regression indicated that demographic
characteristics had a very small contribution to explaining domestic violence (R2 = 0.03) and only
the education level of women was identified as a key predictor of domestic violence. The result of
multiple regression based on life skills among couples demonstrated that communication skills and
anger management of couples were inversely and significantly associated with domestic violence
and these variables explained 51% of the variance in domestic violence.
CONCLUSIONS: Empowering couples with anger management and communication skills can play
an important role in decreasing domestic violence. Therefore, developing and planning educational
interventions by policymakers and health care providers seems necessary for couples.


1. Das T, Basu Roy DT. More than individual factors; is there any
contextual effect of unemployment, poverty and literacy on the
domestic spousal violence against women? A multilevel analysis
on Indian context. SSM Popul Heal 2020;12:100691.
2. Chernet AG, Cherie KT. Prevalence of intimate partner violence
against women and associated factors in Ethiopia. BMC Womens
Health 2020;20:22.
3. Sen S, Bolsoy N. Violence against women: Prevalence and risk
factors in Turkish sample. BMC Womens Health 2017;17:100.
4. MoazenB, SalehiA, SoroushM, VardanjaniHM, ZarrinhaghighiA.
Domestic violence against women in Shiraz, South‑western Iran.
J Inj Violence Res 2019;11:243‑54.
5. Alkan Ö, Tekmanlı HH. Determination of the factors affecting
sexual violence against women in Turkey: A population‑based
analysis. BMC Womens Health 2021;21:188.
6. Alkan Ö, Ünver Ş. Determinants of domestic physical violence
against women in Turkey. Hum Soc Sci Rev 2021;8:55‑67.
7. World Health Organization. Violence against Women: Prevalence
Estimates. Vol. 1. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018.
p. 1‑112.
8. Hajnasiri H, Gheshlagh RG, Sayehmiri K, Moafi F, Farajzadeh M.
Domestic violence among Iranian women: A systematic review
and meta‑analysis. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2016;18:e34971.
9. Fakharzadeh L, Tahery N, Heidari M, Moadab NH, Zahedi A,
Elhami S. Factors associated with prevalence of domestic violence
in women referred to abadan health centers in 1394. Iran J
Epidemiol 2018;13:328‑36.
10. Devries K, Watts C, Yoshihama M, Kiss L, Schraiber LB,
Deyessa N, et al. Violence against women is strongly associated
with suicide attempts: Evidence from the WHO multi‑country
study on women’s health and domestic violence against women.
Soc Sci Med 2011;73:79‑86.
11. Dillon G, Hussain R, Loxton D, Rahman S. Mental and physical
health and intimate partner violence against women: A review
of the literature. Int J Family Med 2013;2013:313909.
12. Castro RJ, Cerellino LP, Rivera R. Risk factors of violence against
women in Peru. J Fam Violence 2017;32:807‑15.
13. Vakily M, Noroozi M, Yamani N. Comparing the effect of
group‑based and compact disk‑based training on midwives’
knowledge and attitude toward domestic violence in women of
reproductive age. J Educ Health Promot 2017;6:70.
14. Franklin CA, Kercher GA. The intergenerational transmission of
intimate partner violence: Differentiating correlates in a random community sample. J Fam Violence 2012;27:187‑99.
15. Sanz‑Barbero B, Barón N, Vives‑Cases C. Prevalence, associated
factors and health impact of intimate partner violence against
women in different life stages. PLoS One 2019;14:e0221049.
16. Okey‑Orji S, Ekenedo G, Chibuzo AN. Life skills acquisition:
A panacea for domestic violence among adolescents in Nigeria.
17. Taghdisi MH, Estebsari F, Dastoorpour M, Jamshidi E,
Jamalzadeh F, Latifi M. The impact of educational intervention
based on empowerment model in preventing violence against
women. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2014;16:e14432.
18. Hajian S, Vakilian K, Mirzaii Najm‑abadi K, Hajian P, Jalalian M.
Violence against women by their intimate partners in Shahroud
in northeastern region of Iran. Glob J Health Sci 2014;6:117‑30.
19. Haj‑Yahia M. Implications of wife abuse and battering for
self‑esteem, depression, and anxiety as revealed by the second
palestinian national survey on violence against women. J Fam
Issues 2000;21:435‑63.
20. Adib‑hajbaghery M, Karimi R, Karbasi H. Comparing violence
against women with and without an addicted spouse in Kashan,
Iran. Addict Health 2015;7:74‑81.
21. Dastan N, Rajabi G, Konesh AK, Mehr RK. Development and
validation of communication skills scale for men and women in
Tehran. J Psychol Methods Model 2010;1:27‑38.
22. Zarei E, Mirzaei M, Sadeghifard M. Providing a model to
determine the role of communication skills and problem solving
skills in preventing from mental and social damages by mediated
family conflicts. Q Couns Cult Psychother 2018;9:1‑26.
23. Ghanbari E, Zadeh FA, Amirazodi N, Alam AA. The effect of
communication skills on sexual satisfaction with the mediatory
effect of personality traits among individual filing for divorce
in shiraz. International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral
Sciences 2017;7:83‑9.
24. Hepner PP, Petersen CH. The development and implications
of a personal problem solving inventory. J Couns Psychol
25. Yaghoobi S, Motevalli S. Structural equations modeling of
tendency to critical thinking, problem solving skills and
self‑esteem among students. Int J Med Invest 2020;9:174‑90.
26. Hubal RC, Fishbein DH, Sheppard MS, Paschall MJ, Diana L,
Hyde CT. How do varied populations interact with embodied
conversational agents? Findings from inner‑city adolescents and
prisoners. Comput Hum Behav 2009;24:1104‑38.
27. Azarnioshan B, Naderi H, Shojaee AA, Asghariganji A. The
mediating role of resilience in the relationship between perceived
parenting styles and anger management. Int J Sch Health
28. Ahmadi R, Soleimani R, Jalali MM, Yousefnezhad A, Rad MR,
Eskandari A. Association of intimate partner violence with
sociodemographic factors in married women: A population‑based
study in Iran. Psychol Health Med 2017;22:834‑44.
29. Jahromi MK, Jamali S, Koshkaki AR, Javadpour S. Prevalence and
risk factors of domestic violence against women by their husbands
in Iran. Glob J Health Sci 2015;8:175‑83.
30. Fanslow J, Hashemi L, Malihi Z, Gulliver P, McIntosh T. Change
in prevalence rates of physical and sexual intimate partner
violence against women: Data from two cross‑sectional studies
in New Zealand, 2003 and 2019. BMJ Open 2021;11:e044907.
31. Adebowale AS. Spousal age difference and associated predictors
of intimate partner violence in Nigeria. BMC Public Health
32. Kabir R, Haque M, Mohammadnezhad M, Samad N, Mostari S,
Jabin S, et al. Domestic violence and decision‑making power
of married women in Myanmar: Analysis of a nationally
representative sample. Ann Saudi Med 2019;39:395‑402.
33. Enache RG. Study on the relationship between communication
and marital attachment in Romanian families. Proc Soc Behav Sci
34. Erozkan A. The effect of communication skills and interpersonal
problem solving skills on social self‑efficacy. Kuram Uygulamada
Egit Bilim 2013;13:739‑45.
35. Sadagheyani HE, Tatari F, Raoufian H, Salimi P, Gazerani A.
The effect of multimedia‑based education on students’ anger
management skill. Educ Med 2021;22:149‑55.
36. Bahrami E, Mazaheri M, Hasanzadeh A. Effect of anger
management education on mental health and aggression of
prisoner women. J Educ Health Promot 2016;5:5.
37. Alamshahi M, Olfati F, Shahsavari S, Aherpour M. The
effectiveness of group counseling based on problem‑solving
on experiencing domestic violence among pregnant women:
A clinical trial. Soc Health Behav 2020;3:62‑9.
38. Taghizadeh Z, Pourbakhtiar M, Ghasemzadeh S, Azimi K,
Mehran A. The effect of training problem‑solving skills for
pregnant women experiencing intimate partner violence:
A randomized control trial. Pan Afr Med J 2018;30:79.
39. Ghasemi MG, Kordi M, Asgharipour N, Esmaeili H, Amirian M,
Eskandarnia E. The effect of problem‑solving skill training on
mental health and the success of treatment of infertile women
under intrauterine insemination treatment. J Educ Health Promot