Document Type : Original Article



BACKGROUND: One of the most important sensory disorders that usually occur after viral infections,
especially human coronaviruses and rhinoviruses, is anosmia or loss of olfactory sense. The aim of
the present study was to investigate olfactory disorders in children with COVID‑19 disease admitted
to Hazrat Masoumeh Hospital in Qom.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive‑analytical study was conducted on 85 children
admitted to Hazrat Masoumeh Hospital in Qom by using a convenience random sampling method.
Data were collected using a checklist containing demographic data. The collected data were entered
SPSS 18 software and were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics.
RESULTS: In the present study, the results showed that the mean age of participants was
6.59 ± 3.27 years and more patients were Iranian (n = 69, 87.3%), had a history of underlying
disease (n = 51, 64.6%), had a history of vaccination (n = 78, 98.7%), and did not have contact with a
suspected patient (n = 43, 54.4%). Among the signs and symptoms of the disease, only the symptoms
of fever (n = 71, 89.9%), weakness and lethargy (n = 44, 55.7%), and anorexia (n = 44, 55.7%) were
observed in most patients. Moreover, 87.3% (n = 69) of the patients did not have olfactory. Furthermore,
no association was found between age (P = 0.803), length of hospital stay (P = 0.397), white blood
cell (P = 0.624), lymph (P = 0.638), Polymorphonuclear (PMN) (P = 0.493), erythrocyte sedimentation
rate (P = 0.507), C‑reactive protein (P = 0.085), and O2sat (P = 0.205) and olfactory disorders, but a
significant relationship was found between patient weight (P = 0.002) and olfactory disorders.
CONCLUSION: According to the results of the study, it can be said that in order to increase the
strength of the immune system of children, especially overweight children, appropriate and planned
action should be taken to prevent problems in these children.


  1. Rothan HA, Byrareddy SN. The epidemiology and pathogenesis
    of coronavirus disease (COVID‑19) outbreak. J Autoimmun
    2. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A novel
    coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl
    J Med 2020;382:727‑33.
    3. Desforges M, Le Coupanec A, Dubeau P, Bourgouin A, Lajoie L,
    Dubé M, et al. Human coronaviruses and other respiratory viruses:
    Underestimated opportunistic pathogens of the central nervous
    system? Viruses 2019;12:14.
    4. Casiglia E, Tikhonoff V, Virdis A, Masi S, Barbagallo CM,
    Bombelli M, et al. Serum uric acid and fatal myocardial infarction:
    Detection of prognostic cut‑off values: The URRAH (Uric Acid
    Right for Heart Health) study. J Hypertens 2020;38:412‑9.
    5. Helu‑Brown P, Barrio C. Latinx mental health in the Mexican
    consulate: Addressing barriers through social good. Res Soc Work
    Pract 2020;30:151‑62.
    6. Wu F, Zhao S, Yu B, Chen YM, Wang W, Song ZG, et al. A new
    coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China.
    Nature 2020;579:265‑9.
    7. Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al.
    A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of
    probable bat origin. Nature 2020;579:270‑3.
    8. LiQ, GuanX, WuP, WangX, ZhouL, TongY, etal. Early transmission
    dynamics in wuhan, china, of novel coronavirus‑infected
    pneumonia. N Engl J Med 2020;382:1199‑207.
    9. Tavakoli A, Vahdat K, Keshavarz M. Novel coronavirus
    disease 2019 (COVID‑19): An emerging infectious disease in the
    21st century. ISMJ 2020;22:432‑50.
    10. Kofi Ayittey F, Dzuvor C, Kormla Ayittey M, Bennita Chiwero N,
    Habib A. Updates on Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus epidemic.
    J Med Virol 2020;92:403‑7.
    11. Wu JT, Leung K, Leung GM. Nowcasting and forecasting the
    potential domestic and international spread of the 2019‑nCoV
    outbreak originating in Wuhan, China: A modelling study. Lancet
    12. Wu A, Peng Y, Huang B, Ding X, Wang X, Niu P, et al. Genome
    composition and divergence of the novel coronavirus (2019‑nCoV)
    originating in China. Cell Host Microbe 2020;27:325‑8.
    13. Sun P, Qie S, Liu Z, Ren J, Xi JJ. Clinical characteristics of 50466
    patients with 2019-nCoV infection. medRxiv 2020;92:612-7.
    14. Xu J, Zhao S, Teng T, Abdalla AE, Zhu W, Xie L, et al. Systematic
    comparison of two animal‑to‑human transmitted human corona
    viruses comparison of two animal‑to‑human transmitted human
    coronaviruses: SARS‑CoV‑2 and SARS‑CoV. Viruses 2020;12:244.
    15. Wang W, Tang J, Wei F. Updated understanding of the outbreak
    of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019‑nCoV) in Wuhan, China. J Med
    Virol 2020;92:441‑7.
    16. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features
    of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China.
    Lancet 2020;395:497‑506.
    17. Yang X, Yu Y, Xu J, Shu H, Xia J, Liu H, et al. Clinical course and
    outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS‑CoV‑2 pneumonia
    in Wuhan, China: A single‑centered, retrospective, observational
    study. Lancet Respir Med 2020;8:475‑81.
    18. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al.
    Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019
    novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A descriptive
    study. Lancet 2020;395:507‑13.
    19. Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KK, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A familial
    cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus
    indicating person‑to‑person transmission: A study of a family
    cluster. Lancet 2020;395:514‑23.
    20. Wu P, Hao X, Lau EH, Wong JY, Leung KS, Wu JT, et al. Realtime tentative assessment of the epidemiological characteristics
    of novel coronavirus infections in Wuhan, China, as at 22 January
    2020. Euro Surveill 2020;25:200-8. [doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.
    21. Giacomelli A, Pezzati L, Conti F, Bernacchia D, Siano M, Oreni L,
    et al. Self‑reported olfactory and taste disorders in patients with
    severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 infection: A cross‑sectional
    study. Clin Infect Dis 2020;71:889‑90.
    22. Lechien JR, Chiesa‑Estomba CM, De Siati DR, Horoi M, Le Bon SD,
    Rodriguez A, et al. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions as a
    clinical presentation of mild‑to‑moderate forms of the coronavirus
    disease (COVID‑19): A multicenter European study. Eur Arch
    Otorhinolaryngol 2020;277:2251‑61.
    23. Mao L, Jin H, Wang M, Hu Y, Chen S, He Q, et al. Neurologic
    manifestations of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease
    2019 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Neurol 2020;77:683‑90.
    24. Klopfenstein T, Kadiane‑Oussou NJ, Toko L, Royer PY, Lepiller Q,
    Gendrin V, et al. Features of anosmia in COVID‑19. Med Mal Infect
    25. Mak PQ, Chung KS, Wong JS, Shek CC, Kwan MY. Anosmia and
    ageusia: Not an uncommon presentation of COVID‑19 infection
    in children and adolescents. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020;39:e199‑200.
    26. Marhaeni W, Wijaya AB, Kusumaningtyas P, Mapianto RS.
    Thalassemic Child Presenting with Anosmia due to COVID‑19.
  2. Indian J Pediatr 2020;87:750.
    27. Han AY, Mukdad L, Long JL, Lopez IA. Anosmia in COVID-19:
    Mechanisms and Significance. Chem Senses 2020;6:423-8:bjaa040.
    28. Xu X, Yu C, Qu J, Zhang L, Jiang S, Huang D, et al. Imaging
    and clinical features of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus
    SARS‑CoV‑2. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2020;47:1275‑80.
    29. Lei Z, Cao H, Jie Y, Huang Z, Guo X, Chen J, et al. A cross‑sectional
    comparison of epidemiological and clinical features of patients
    with coronavirus disease (COVID‑19) in Wuhan and outside
    Wuhan, China. Travel Med Infect Dis 2020;35:101664.
    30. Assaker R, Colas AE, Julien‑Marsollier F, Bruneau B, Marsac L,
    Greff B, et al. Presenting symptoms of COVID‑19 in children:
    A meta‑analysis of published studies. Br J Anaesth 2020;125:e330‑2.
    31. Xiong XL, Wong KK, Chi SQ, Zhou AF, Tang JQ, Zhou LS,
    et al. Comparative study of the clinical characteristics and
    epidemiological trend of 244 COVID‑19 infected children with
    or without GI symptoms. Gut 2021;70:436‑8.
    32. Xiong X, Wong KK, Chi S, Zhou A, Tang J, Zhou L, et al. Are
    COVID-19 infected children with gastrointestinal symptoms
    different from those without symptoms? A comparative study
    of the clinical characteristics and epidemiological trend of 244
    pediatric cases from Wuhan. medRxiv 2020;5:842-8.
    33. Buonsenso D, Parri N, De Rose C, Valentini P; Gemelli‑pediatric
    COVID‑19 team. Toward a clinically based classification of disease
    severity for paediatric COVID‑19. Lancet Infect Dis 2021;21:22.
    34. Mantovani A, Rinaldi E, Zusi C, Beatrice G, Saccomani MD,
    Dalbeni A. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) in children
    and/or adolescents: A meta‑analysis. Pediatr Res 2021;89:733‑7.
    35. Hornuss D, Lange B, Schröter N, Rieg S, Kern WV, Wagner D.
    Anosmia in COVID‑19 patients. Clin Microbiol Infect
    36. Tao J, Song Z, Yang L, Huang C, Feng A, Man X. Emergency
    management of 2019 novel coronavirus: Implications for the
    dermatology department. Br J Dermatol 2020;182:e195.