Document Type : Original Article


Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Social Science, Roudehen Branch of Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


INTRODUCTION: Conduct disorder is among the most serious and complex complications in schoolaged children. Considering severe problems in the families of children with conduct disorder, this
article aimed to investigate such problems in this group.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This qualitative research was conducted on 23 participants in Tehran,
Iran. The study participants were selected by purposive sampling technique. Interviewees consisted
of children with conduct disorder (8–12 years old), their parents, teachers, and relevant experts. This
study is a qualitative research which is a content analysis. The research tools included a checklist of
questions approved by experts. The content analysis method was used with the help of MAXQDA
software to analyze the obtained data.
RESULTS: The findings comprised the studied families’ issues in five categories. These classes
included the parents’ marital problems, helplessness, and inability of the family to improve conditions;
inappropriate discipline approaches; the family’s lack of interest in the treatment; and the family
members’ mental harms.
CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to provide appropriate facilities and health-care centers for the
families to reduce the burden of their problems. In addition, a specialist and experienced work team
consisting of at least a child psychiatrist, a child psychologist, and a social worker is necessary to
serving these families.


1. Association AP. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders (DSM-5®). Washington,US: American Psychiatric
Publishing; 2013.
2. Matthys W, Lochman JE. Oppositional Defiant Disorder and
Conduct Disorder in Childhood. NY, US: Wiley; 2017.
3. Woodard TU, Davis R. An introduction to oppositional defiant
disorder and conduct disorder. US Pharm 2019;44:29-32.
4. Frick PJ. Current research on conduct disorder in children and
adolescents. S Afr J Psychol 2016;46:160-74.
5. Emmanuel SO. Child Neglect: The Role of School Counselors.
Addressing Multicultural Needs in School Guidance and
Counseling: IGI Global; 2020. p. 136-62.
6. Bayrami M, Hashemi T, Shadbafi M. The compression of
emotional problems, hyper activity and conduct disorders in
students with learning disabilities in reading, mathematics and
normal students. Rooyesh-e-Ravanshenasi 2018;7:231-44.
7. Najafi M, Foladchang M, Alizadeh H, Mohammadifar M.
Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct
disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. J Except Child
8. Sarraf N, Mohammadi MR, Ahmadi N, Khaleghi A,
Gharibi S, Atapour H, et al. Epidemiology of children and
adolescents psychiatric disorders in Qazvin central areas 2016-2017
(A national project). J Qazvin Univ Med Sci 2019;22:164-77.
9. S a l m a n i a n M , M o h a m m a d i M R , K e s h t k a r A A ,
Asadian-Koohestani F, Alavi SS, Sepasi N. Prevalence of
conduct disorder in the Middle East: A systematic review and
meta-analysis protocol. Iran J Psychiatry 2015;10:285-7.
10. Salmanian M, Asadian-Koohestani F, Mohammadi MR.
A systematic review on the prevalence of conduct disorder in the
Middle East. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2017;52:1337-43.
11. Yockey RA, King KA, Vidourek RA. Family factors and parental
correlates to adolescent conduct disorder. J Fam Stud 2019;
Volume 25:1-10.
12. Murray-Harvey R, Slee PT. School and home relationships and
their impact on school bullying. Sch Psychol Int 2010;31:271-95.
13. Hopman JA, Tick NT, van der Ende J, Wubbels T, Verhulst FC,
Maras A, et al. Developmental links between externalizing behavior
and student–teacher interactions in male adolescents with
psychiatric disabilities. Sch Psychol Rev 2019; 48:68-80.
14. Roberts R, McCrory E, Joffe H, De Lima N, Viding E. Living
with conduct problem youth: Family functioning and parental
perceptions of their child. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
15. Batara JB, Guanzon AB, Macaloyos JL, Diaz CL, Albao JC,
Villano MD. Parental Infidelity and children’s reactions: A case
study in a Filipino family. Prism 2018;23:27-41.
16. Hashemi L, Homayuni H. Emotional divorce: Child’s well-being.
J Divorce Remarriage 2017;58:631-44.
17. Jam FG, Takaffoli M, Kamali M, Eslamian A, Alavi Z, Nia VA.
Systematic review on social support of parent/parents of disabled
children. Arch Rehabil 2018;19:126-41.
18. Hennig-Thurau T, Houston MB. The Fundamentals of
Entertainment. Entertainment Science. NY, US: Springer; 2019.
p. 41-57.
19. Izenstark D, Ebata AT. Why families go outside: An exploration
of mothers’ and daughters’ family-based nature activities. Leis
Sci 2019; 41:1-19.
20. Sege RD, Siegel BS. Abuse CO, Child CO, Health F. Effective
discipline to raise healthy children. Pediatrics 2018;142:1-11.
21. Walsh J. Theories for Direct Social Work Practice. Stamford, US:
Cengage Learning; 2014.
22. Daley DC, Smith E, Balogh D, Toscaloni J. Forgotten but not
gone: The impact of the opioid epidemic and other substance
use disorders on families and children. Commonwealth
2018;20:93- 121.
23. Martin MJ, Conger RD, Robins RW. Family stress processes and
drug and alcohol use by Mexican American adolescents. Dev
Psychol 2019;55:170-83.
24. Fritzsche K, Monsalve SD, Schweickhardt A, Abbo C, Chen FK,
Nguyen KV. Dependence Syndrome. Psychosomatic Medicine.
NY, US: Springer; 2020. p. 215-29.
25. Back Nielsen M, Carlsson J, Køster Rimvall M, Petersen JH,
Norredam M. Risk of childhood psychiatric disorders in
children of refugee parents with post-traumatic stress disorder:
A nationwide, register-based, cohort study. Lancet Public Health