Document Type : Original Article


PhD Candidate in Reproductive Health, Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and the second leading cause
of death among women. Religion and spiritual behaviors are effective strategies for maintaining
human health. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between religious orientation
and spiritual intelligence with general health dimensions in women with breast cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study is a correlational study that was performed on
50 women with breast cancer referred to medical centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical
Sciences in 2020. Data were collected through questionnaires of religious orientation, spiritual
intelligence, and general health. Data were analyzed by Spearman and regression tests.
RESULTS: The results showed that religious orientation had a significant positive relationship with
the overall score of general health, but the components of religious orientation had a significant
negative relationship with the number of components of public health (p < 0.05). Spiritual intelligence
also had a significant positive relationship with general health. However, the number of components
of spiritual intelligence has a significant negative relationship with the number of components of
general health (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Considering the relationship between religious orientation and spiritual intelligence
with public health and considering educational programs based on spiritual intelligence and religious
orientation in this group of people can be an important step in promoting their general health.


1. Abdollah Zadeh R, Moodi M, Allahyari A, Khanjani N. The
relationship between spiritual intelligence and resiliency of
patients suffering from cancer in South Khorasan State. Nurs J
Vulnerable 2015;2:15‑24.
2. Einy S, Hashemi Z. The role of religious coping, spiritual
intelligence, and spiritual well‑being in predicting the perceived
stress of patients with cancer. Shefaye Khatam 2020;8:70‑9.
3. Moradi‑Joo M, Babazadeh T, Honarvar Z, Mohabat‑Bahar S,
Rahmati‑Najarkolaei F, Haghighi M. The relationship between
spiritual health and public health aspects among patients with
breast cancer. Journal of Pizhūhish dar dīn va salāmat 2017;3:80‑1.
4. MobarakiR, Yousefi F, Esfandiari GH. The comparison of spiritual
health in cancer and non‑cancer patients in Sanandaj Tohid
Hospital in 2018. Shenakht J Psychol Psychiatr 2020;6:141‑9.
5. Ghahremani R, Nemati‑Vanashi R. The relationship between
religious orientation, emotional intelligence and spiritual
intelligence and mental health in high school students in Karaj.
J New Adv Behav Sci 2018;3:45‑62.
6. Ashouri J, Saffarian MR, Yousefi N. The relationship between
religious orientation, optimism and spiritual intelligence with the
spiritual health of Quran teachers. Psychol Relig 2013;7:125‑36.
7. Charoghchian Khorasani E, Peyman N, Esmaily H. Effect of
education based on the theory of self-efficacy and health literacy
strategies on exclusive breastfeeding: A randomized clinical trial.
Koomesh 2019;21:633-8.
8. Jafari A, Alami A, Charoghchian E, Delshad Noghabi A,
Nejatian M. The impact of effective communication skills training
on the status of marital burnout among married women. BMC
Womens Health 2021;21:231.
9. Partovi S, Kianifar H R, Gholami Robatsangi M, Ghorbani Z,
Saeidi R. Evaluation of massage with oil containing medium chain
triglyceride on weight gaining in preterm. Koomesh 2009;11:1-6.
10. Saeidi R, Banihashem A, Hammoud M, Gholami M. Comparison
of oral recombinant erythropoietin and subcutaneous recombinant
erythropoietin in prevention of anemia of prematurity. Iran Red
Crescent Med J 2012;14:178-81.
11. O’Conner DB, Cobb J, O’Connar RC. Riligiosity, Stress and
psychological distress: No evidence for an association among
undergraduate students. Per Indiv Differ 2003;34:211‑7.
12. Maltby J, Day L. Depressive symptoms and religious orientation:
Examining the relationship between religiosity and depression
within the context of oter correlates of depression. Pers Invid
Differ 2000;28:383‑93.
13. Neelman J, Halpern D, Leon D, Lewis G. Tolerance of suicide,
religion and suicide rates: An ecological and individual study in
western countries. Psychol Med 1997;27:165‑71.
14. Alves RR, Alves Hda N, Barboza RR, Souto Wde M. The influence
of religiosity on health. Cien Saude Colet 2010;15:2105‑11.
15. Thoresen CE, Harris HS. Spirituality and health: What’s the
evidence and what’s needed? Ann Behav Med 2002;24:3‑13.
16. Solati K, Rabiei M, Shariati M. The relationship between mental health and religious orientation. Qom Univ Med Sci J 2011;5:42‑8.
17. Mohammadi J, Gholamrezaee S, Azizi A. The relationship
between religious orientation and mental health among female
nurses working in public hospitals of Tabriz in 2014. J Sabzevar
Univ Med Sci 2016;22:1080‑7.
18. Nozari J, Gholami Y. The relationship between religious
orientation and adherence to Islamic beliefs with student’s mental
health. Stud Islam Psychol 2010;7:421‑41.
19. Maleki Z, Ashkan S, Ashoori J, Yosefi N. Relationship between
personality traits, religiousity and happiness with general health
among nursing students. Iran J Nurs 2014;26:90‑100.
20. RostamiM, MehrabanS, BaziarS, SharifiM, Mohammad‑AlipourZ,
Bakhtyari V. Relationships between spiritual intelligence and
general health among students. Refahj 2014;14:151‑63.
21. Khodabakhshi S, RahimikiaA, Jafari H. Identifying the relationship
between spiritual quotient and mental health in the students of
Lorestan university of medical sciences. Yafte 2014;16:58‑65.
22. Elmer L, MacDonald D, Fridman H. Transpersonal psychology,
physical health, and mental health: Theory, research and practice.
The Humanistic Psychologist 2003;31:159‑81.
23. Yousefi H. The relationship between religious orientation and
religious coping behaviors in families with mental health patients
admitted to hospital emergency departments, presented at the
first. Conference on the role of religion and mental health. Tehran:
Iran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services; 2002.
24. Moallemy S. On the relationship between mental health,
spiritual intelligence and dysfunctional attitudes in students of
Systan and Baluchestan University, Southeast of Iran. Journal of
Fundamentals of Mental Health 2010;12:702‑9.
25. Tajedini O, Sadat Mosavi A, Alizadeh M. Spiritual intelligence
and mental health of librarians of academic libraries. Knowledge
Retrieval and Semantic Systems 2017;3:95‑110.