1 Institute for Medical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Informatics, Martin‑Luther‑University Halle‑Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany

2 Research Triangle Institute Global India Private Limited (RTI International), New Delhi, 100 037, India, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO), Lyon CEDEX 08, France


BACKGROUND: Although there is a reduction in cervical cancer incidence over the years, it keeps
the second position of the most common cancers among females in India. The aim of this review
is to understand the challenges of health promotion and education strategies to prevent cervical
cancer in India.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review is based on 78 studies published during 1993–2017 on
the topics of awareness, attitude, and acceptance toward cervical cancer, screening, and human
papilloma virus vaccination among Indians. The extracted information was summarized according to
different populations such as people from different social and community groups, women and men
attended clinics, students (nursing/medical/nonmedical), health‑care providers (doctors, nurses, and
other health workers), migrated Indians, and cervical cancer patients.
RESULTS: The awareness about cervical cancer and its prevention was very poor among women
from different communities and the majority had a negative attitude toward screening and vaccination
in general. The health professionals and medical students were more aware of cervical cancer and
its prevention compared to the general population. Majority of students irrespective of medical or
nonmedical background had a positive attitude toward vaccination. Only a small proportion of women
in the general population were ever screened.
CONCLUSIONS: Observations from this review indicate immediate attention of the public health
authority to take appropriate actions to educate and motivate general population toward cervical
cancer prevention and to improve the facilities to incorporate the much needed preventive and early
detection interventions in India.


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