Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics

2 Prosthodontics, Crown and Bridge, Esthetic Dentistry and Oral Implantology, Dental Institute, Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India


BACKGROUND: Smokeless tobacco (SLT) usage contributes about 40% of the total tobacco used
in India. Among the 28 known carcinogens in SLT, tobacco‑specific nitrosamines are considered to
be the most potent. This has challenged the metabolic condition leading to a rise in the inflammatory
status, hepatic injury, and apoptosis of the liver and thyroid tissues. Therefore, the present study was
undertaken to evaluate the adverse effects of SLT on the liver and thyroid and establish a correlation
between them in Jharkhand population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 individuals (50 SLT users and 50 healthy individuals)
were selected for the study. A complete history was obtained, and clinical examination was done to
evaluate any oral mucosal changes. Venous blood samples were taken to analyze the liver function
test and thyroid profile.
RESULTS: Significant changes were observed in the liver enzyme levels and thyroid profile in SLT
users when compared to healthy controls. All the parameters of liver function test had a positive
correlation with the form of SLT, whereas thyroid profile had a negative correlation.
CONCLUSION: This study might be helpful in creating awareness on the hazards of using SLT among
the Indian population as a despicable substitute to smoking tobacco. It also acts as a diagnostic tool
and warning alarm in chronic tobacco users.


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