Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology

2 Department of Community Medicine

3 Department of Ophthalmology

4 Foundation in Science, Melaka Manipal Medical College (MAHE), Melaka, Malaysia


BACKGROUND: Cancer cervix is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), oncogenic virus and has
vaccines and screening as its preventive measures. This study analyzes the change in awareness
and attitudes of nonmedical students toward the condition following the use of an educational module.
METHODOLOGY: The study design was quasi‑experimental. The interprofessional (IP) team
implemented an educational module and analyzed the difference in awareness of young individuals
toward the cancer cervix. A pretest and posttest written questionnaire, customized for both genders,
was administered with the intervention of the educational module in between. The module consisted
of a short educational presentation along with a group activity. A follow‑up survey was also done after
2 months to check the attrition of awareness. The statistical analysis was done using MacNemar test
using SPSS 12 IBM software and significance of differences were determined.
RESULTS: There was a significant improvement of knowledge and awareness on linkage between
HPV and cervical cancer (P < 0.001). There was also significant change with regard to attitudes
toward cervical cancer vaccination (P = 0.004). The knowledge of HPV linkage to the malignancy
was maintained after 2 months of gap. The subjects also wished for more future awareness program.
CONCLUSIONS: There is improved awareness in the dental and foundation in science students,
and this improved awareness will ensure favorable attitudes toward cervical cancer vaccines or
will attend regular screening programs. Awareness program must be held at regular intervals at
different locations to enhance the knowledge dissemination of this common yet preventable genital
malignancy of females. The IP collaboration and practices will help in reducing the disease burden
of the society in future.


1. De S, Kanagasabai S. Review article human papilloma virus
vaccine – An update. Eur J Sci Res 2010;43:256 ‑264
2. De S, Kanagasabai S, Barua A. Awareness of human papilloma
virus and acceptability of its vaccination amongst female medical
students. Int J Health Sci Res 2014;4:82‑90.
3. De Carvalho N, Teixeira J, Roteli‑Martins CM, Naud P,
De Borba P, Zahaf T, et al. Sustained efficacy and immunogenicity
of the HPV‑16/18 AS04‑adjuvanted vaccine up to 7.3 years in
young adult women. Vaccine 2010;28:6247‑55.
4. Sam IC, Wong LP, Rampal S, Leong YH, Pang CF, Tai YT,
et al. Maternal acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccine in
Malaysia. J Adolesc Health 2009;44:610‑2.
5. Seng LM, Rosman AN, Khan A, Haris NM, Mustapha NA,
Husaini NS, et al. Awareness of cervical cancer among women
in Malaysia. Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2018;12:42‑8.
6. Abd Allah AA, Hummeida ME, Elmula IM. Awareness and
attitudes of nursing students towards prevention of cervical
cancer. Cervical Cancer 2016;1:1.
7. Rashwan HH, Saat NZ, Abd Manan DN. Knowledge, attitude and
practice of Malaysian medical and pharmacy students towards
human papillomavirus vaccination. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev
8. Doshi D, Reddy BS, Karunakar P, Deshpande K. HPV, cervical
cancer and Pap test related knowledge among a sample of female
dental students in India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015;16:5415‑20.
9. Dulla D, Daka D, Wakgari N. Knowledge about cervical cancer
screening and its practice among female health care workers in
Southern Ethiopia: A cross‑sectional study. Int J Womens Health
10. Azizah Ab M, Nor Saleha I.T, Noor Hashimah A, Asmah Z.A,
Mastulu W. Malaysian National Cancer Registry Report
2007‑2011: National Cancer Registry, June 2015; 13‑14
11. De Vuyst H, Clifford GM, Nascimento MC, Madeleine MM,
Franceschi S. Prevalence and type distribution of human
papillomavirus in carcinoma and intraepithelial neoplasia
of the vulva, vagina and anus: A meta‑analysis. Int J Cancer
12. Reisinger KS, Block SL, Lazcano‑Ponce E, Samakoses R,
Esser MT, Erick J, et al. Safety and persistent immunogenicity
of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16, 18 L1
virus‑like particle vaccine in preadolescents and adolescents:
A randomized controlled trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2007;26:201‑9.
13. Kang S, Kim KH, Kim YT, Kim YT, Kim JH, Song YS, et al. Safety
and immunogenicity of a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus
types 6, 11, 16 and 18: A randomized, placebo‑controlled trial in
176 Korean subjects. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2008;18:1013‑9.
14. Olubodun T, Odukoya OO, Balogun MR. Knowledge, attitude
and practice of cervical cancer prevention, among women residing
in an urban slum in Lagos, South West, Nigeria. Pan Afr Med J
15. Coronado Interis E, Anakwenze CP, Aung M, Jolly PE. Increasing
cervical cancer awareness and screening in Jamaica: Effectiveness
of a theory‑based educational intervention. Int J Environ Res
Public Health 2015 Dec 22; 13 (1):ijerph 13010053. doi: 10.3390/
ijerph 13010053. [Journal name is International Journal of
Environmental Research and Public Health]
16. McCarthy SH, Walmer KA, Boggan JC, Gichane MW, Calo WA,
Beauvais HA, et al. Awareness of cervical cancer causes and
predeterminants of likelihood to screen among women in Haiti.
J Low Genit Tract Dis 2017;21:37‑41.
17. Kim HW, Kim DH. Awareness of cervical cancer prevention
among mothers of adolescent daughters in Korea: Qualitative
research. BMJ Open 2015;5:e006915.