Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Nursing, Nursing Care Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Biostatistics, Instroctor of Nursing School Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


INTRODUCTION: Spiritual intelligence is better defined as a capacity to discover and develop
true meaning, deep purpose, and vision in life. The purpose of the present study was to determine
the predictive role of demographic variables affecting the overall spiritual intelligence in diabetic
METHODS: In 2016, a cross‑sectional study was conducted involving 200 adolescents with type 1
diabetes referring to the Iranian Diabetes Association consenting to participate. The inclusion criteria
were: age ranging from 15 to 21 years, more than a year since last diagnosed with diabetes, patients’
full awareness of their disease, not having other physical‑psychological illnesses, and not taking
any psychiatric or narcotic drugs. Spiritual intelligence was measured using the Spiritual Intelligence
Self Report Inventory questionnaire consisting of 24‑questions. The alpha Cronbach’s method was
applied to validate the questionnaire in terms of content, form, and data with the reliability calculated
as 0.903. Demographic data were analyzed using SPSS software version 18.
RESULTS: On total, 56% of the participants were female, 17.10 ± 1.85, and the mean duration of
diabetes was 5.98% ± 3.79%, 62.5% reported diabetes history among immediate relatives. Forty‑two
percent of the participants were the oldest child in the family first children of the family and 29.5%
were studying at the university. The mean score of spiritual intelligence was 60.42 60.42 ing from
15 to 21 years regression test using the enter method (ANOVA: 0.703, F: 0.739) showed that none
of the demographic components explored did not significantly alter the scores that assessed spiritual
CONCLUSION: The outcome of the current study portrayed that demographic features do not
necessarily alter the overall spiritual intelligence scores, thereby not necessarily affecting an
individual’s overall spirituality.


1. King DB. Rethinking claims of spiritual intelligence: A definition,
model, and measure.Trent University. ProQuest;2008.
2. Kashdan TB, Nezlek JB. Whether, when, and how is spirituality
related to well‑being? Moving beyond single occasion
questionnaires to understanding daily process. Pers Soc Psychol
Bull 2012;38 (11):1523‑1535.
3. Karahroudy FA, Shahboulaghi FM, Hosseini MA,
Rassouli M, Biglarian A. Translation and psychometric properties
of the persian version of self‑management of type 1 diabetes for
adolescents. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2016;29 (7):761‑767.
4. Kilcup CE. Secret wisdom: A mixed methods study of spiritual
intelligence in adolescents ages 12‑18. Institute of Transpersonal
Psychology. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing 2014.
5. Puchalski CM, Blatt B, Kogan M, Butler A. Spirituality and health:
The development of a field. Acad Med 2014;89 (1):10‑16.
6. Rahmanian M, Hojat M, Fatemi NS, Mehran A ,
Parvizy S. The predictive role of spiritual intelligence in
self‑management in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. J Educ
Health Promot 2018;7:69.
7. Rahmanian M, Hojat M, Jahromi MZ, Nabiolahi A. The
relationship between spiritual intelligence with self‑efficacy in
adolescents suffering type 1 diabetes. J Educ Health Promot
8. Polzer RL, Miles MS. Spirituality in African Americans with
diabetes: Self‑management through a relationship with god. Qual
Health Res 2007;17:176‑88.
9. Reynolds N, Mrug S, Guion K. Spiritual coping and psychosocial
adjustment of adolescents with chronic illness: The role of
cognitive attributions, age, and disease group. J Adolesc Health
10. Hockenberry MJ, Wilson D, Wong DL. Wong’s Essentials of
Pediatric Nursing. 9th ed. ISBN: 978‑0‑323‑08343‑0: Elsevier/
Mosby; 2013.
11. Keough LA. Self‑Management of Type 1 Diabetes Across
Adolescence: A Dissertation: University of Massachusetts Medical
School; 2009.
12. Hosseini M, Elias H, Krauss SE, Aishah S. A review study on
spiritual intelligence, adolescence and spiritual intelligence,
factors that may contribute to individual differences in spiritual
intelligence, and the related theories. Int J Psychol Stud
13. Nohi A, Rahimi H, Nakhai N. The study of spiritual intelligence in
nursing and midwifery students of Kerman University of medical
sciences. Med Hist Q 2012;5:(17) 63‑78.
14. Bagheri F, Akbarizadeh F, Hatami HR. The relationship between
spiritual intelligence and happiness on the nurse staffs of the
Fatemeh Zahra Hospital and Bentolhoda Institute of Boushehr
city. Iran South Med J 2011;14:256‑263.
15. Raqib MS, Siyadat S A . A n A n a l y s i s o f
spiritual intelligence of department heads at Isfahan University
and its relation to demographic traits. Islam Stud Psychol
16. Abdollah Zadeh R, Moodi M, Allahyari A, Kkhanjani N. The
relationship between spiritual intelligence and resiliency of
patients suffering from cancer in South Khorasan state. Nurs
Vulnerable J 2015;2:15‑24.
17. Yang KP. The spiritual intelligence of nurses in Taiwan. J Nurs
Res 2006;14:24‑35.
18. Sajadinezhad MS, Akbari Chermahini S. A developmental study
of spiritual intelligence from adolescence to elderly. Psychol Posit