1 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran

2 Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran, Health Sciences Research Center, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh,iran

3 Department of Occupational Health and Safety Engineering, School of Health, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran

4 Department of Occupational Health and Safety Engineering, School of Health, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran


Iran is disaster‑prone country in the world. Lack of awareness and failure to have a proper
response to natural disasters cause heavy damages to nations and national assets. Risk
management is essential to prevent, intervene, and fight disasters as it can attenuate the
destructive effects. The present study reviews studies on health in disasters in Iranian schools
with an emphasis on readiness to deal with crises. The study was carried out through a
systematic search using keywords in Persian and English in Iranian and international databases
such as Google Scholar, SID, Magiran, Web of Sciences, PubMed, and Scopus. The time
range of the search included all articles published before September 2020. The reference
lists were also checked to find more articles. Totally, 575 articles were found and full‑text of
32 articles were examined. After omitting repetitious items, the articles were checked by two
independent researchers in terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria so that 15 articles entered
the final analysis phases. The target population consisted of students, teachers, managers,
and experts of disaster resilience. The articles were mostly focused on earthquake, fire, and
structural safety. Implementation of health school models through improving awareness and
crisis management knowledge in school officials plays a key role in improving and preserving
health in school environment and safety of students. Measures like paying more attention to
safety of building and physical space of schools, adding crisis management skills to curriculum
as practical educations, informing parents about such risk, and educating students about safety
and prevention of risks are recommended.


1. Kamali Y. Comparison of crisis management structure in
Iran, Japan, India and Turkey. Strategic Stud Public Policy
2. Rahimi E. Studying the importance and priority dimensions
in crisis management from the employees’ view. Disaster Prev
Manag Knowl (Q) 2018;8:54-65.
3. Mehraein NZ, Kazemi M. The Study of Junior High Schools’
Earthquake Preparedness in Shiraz City; 2017;8:1-2:92-104.
4. MalekiS, Goudarzi R. Assessing the vulnerability of educational
buildings (primary schools) in Boroujerd. Q Geogr Urban Plan
Zagros Landsc 2018;10:129-51.
5. Taghvae M, Rahmani N. An analysis of the status of Isfahan office
buildings for urban crisis planning and management. Q J Urban
Manag Stud 2017;8:20-101.
6. Hosseini SY, Damnabi AA. The Impact of Strategic Management
on the Quality of Crisis Management Case Study: Railway
Transportation Industry 2013;1:2:77-86.
7. KalvirRH. Comparison of school yearnings and academic burnout
in high school students. School Psychol 2016;4:60-75.
8. Kurokawa N. The experience of large earthquakes in Japan and
impact on body physique in schoolchildren. J Phys Fit Sports Med
9. IluminRC, Oreta AW. A post-disaster functional asset value index
for school buildings. Procedia Eng 2018;212:230-7.
10. Heidari M, Jafari H, Heidari S. Zahedan school fire: Endless fire
incidents in Iranian schools. Disaster Med Public Health Prep
11. Vosoughi M, Dargahi A, Teymouri P. Environmental Health
and Safety Assessment of Schools in Khalkhal City Using Crisis
Management Approach. HDQ. 2020;5(2):91-98 12. Bhatia S, Kheradmand M. Safe schools for the community:
A case and tool for disaster-proof schools. Disaster Prev Manag
Knowl (Q) 2015;5:69-79.
13. Hadavandi M, Hadavandi F. Evaluation the effectiveness of crisis
management workshop training Kerman province-2009. Q Sci J
Rescue Relief 2010;2:1:17-23.
14. Azeredo R, Stephens-Stidham S. Design and implementation
of injury prevention curricula for elementary schools: Lessons
learned. Inj Prev 2003;9:274-8.
15. Mirzaei S, Mohammadinia L. Importance of developing a
local instrument of disaster-resilient school, letter to editor.
J Community Health Res 2019;8:194-5.
16. Pourahmadi Sh, Taqi E, Ardeshir A, Yarali N. Evaluating the
effectiveness of school crisis management training courses,
International Center of Academic Communication (ICOAC),
University of Szczecin. 11-12 Devember 2014; Szczecin, Poland.
17. Shirzad Kebria B. Investigating the dimensions and components
of crisis management to provide appropriate solution for high
schools in Tehran. Journal of Educational Administration
Research. 2013; 16 (4):85-118.
18. Nejadshokohi F, Nji AzimiZ, Jameh Kurdkandi F. Comprehensive,
Identifying and Prioritizing Factors Affecting Preparednessfor
School Crisis Using FAHP. Paper presented at: International
Center of Academic Communication (ICOAC), University of
Szczecin. 11-12 Devember 2014; Szczecin, Poland.
19. Mirzaei S, Falahzade H, Mohammadinia L, Nasiriani K,
Dehghani Tafti AA, RahaeiZ, et al. Assessment of school resilience
in disasters: A cross-sectional study. J Educ Health Promot
20. Abdoli F, Sadeghei T, Esmaeilzadeh S. Schools plans for dealing
with the risk of accidents and disasters in Rafsanjan in 2013.
Community Health J 2017;10:12‑8.
21. Shahi S, Esmailiy M. Investigating the level of preparation to
encounter the earth quake in Females’ Secondary Schools of Ilam
Province,(Dehloran and Moormoori) in (2015-2016). Disaster Prev
Manag Knowl (Q) 2017;7:58-67.
22. Vahdat K, Smith NJ. A risk-based system for managing the
retrofitting of school buildings in seismic prone areas: A case
study from Iran. Int J Risk Assess Manag 2014;17:311-31.
23. Moradian MJ, Nazdik ZM. Game versus lecture-based learning
in disaster risk education; An experience on Shiraz High School
students. Bull Emerg Trauma 2019;7:112.
24. GholamiA, Javdani M. Designing and validating a curriculum
framework of natural disaster risk reduction education in primary
school. Res Curr Plan 2020;17:134-50.
25. Vatani J, Arami M, Khanikosarkhizi Z, Shahabi Rabori MA,
Khandan M, Dehghan N, et al. Safety climate and related factors
in rehabilitation nurses of hospitals in Iran. Work. 2021;68:189-96.
26. Karande N, Shah P, Bhatia M, Lakade L, Bijle MN, Arora N, et al.
Assessment of awareness amongst school teachers regarding
prevention and emergency management of dentoalveolar traumatic
injuries in school children in Pune City, before and 3 months after
dental educational program. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13:873-7.
27. Rao A, Rao A, Shenoy A. Are schools and teachers prepared to
respond to health emergencies in children? A questionnaire study
in Mangalore, India. Int J Adv Res 2014;2:1123-6.
28. Grimaz S, Malisan P. VISUS: A pragmatic expert-based
methodology for the seismic safety triage of school facilities. Boll
di Geofisica Teorica ed Appl 2016;57:91-110
29. Hosseinighousheh SN, Khammar A, Hosseini Foladi S,
Ivanbagha R, Ahagh MH, Veisi R, Hami M, Poursadeqiyan M.
Crisis Management at Iranian Schools: A Review Study. Health
in Emergencies and Disasters Quarterly. 2019;5(2):63-70.
30. Öcal A, TopkayaY. Earthquake preparedness in schools in seismic
hazard regions in the South-East of Turkey. Disaster Prev Manage
Int J 2011;20(3):334-348.
31. Mirsaeedie L, Shamsi A. Architectural design solutions to increase
the safety of schools against fire. Disaster Prev Manag Knowl (Q)
32. Davarani ER, et al. Review of school fires in Iran: The causes,
consequences and lessons learned. Ann Burns Fire Disaster
33. Khabar Online News. Take a Look at the Fires in the Schools that
Led to The Deaths of Children. Available from: https://www. [Last accessed on2018 Dec. 17].
34. Hosseini M, Izadkhah YO. Earthquake disaster risk management
planning in schools. Disaster Prev Manage Int J 2006;15:4: 649-661.
35. Aghili MM, Jafari AJ, Zia-oddini H. The assessment of
establishment and maintenance of the health management system
in schools and grading for awarding stars (HSE-ms). J Isfahan
Med Sch 2010;28:107:248-258.
36. Taghizadeh AO, Mowafi H, Ardalan A. School fire in Iran: Simple
actions save lives. Ann Burns Fire Disaster 2013;26:44.
37. Borzoi Khah Foumani M, Iraq AS, Barzegar N. Investigating
the Change in the Attitude of Primary School Students in Qom
Towards Safety and Crisis Management Issues in the Educational
Center for Ready-Made Children in School (Com), in the First
International Conference and the Fourth National Conference
on Fire and Urban Safety; 2018.
38. Shiwaku K, Ueda Y, Oikawa Y, Shaw R. School disaster resilience
assessment in the affected areas of 2011 East Japan earthquake
and tsunami. Natural Hazards. 2016 May 1;82 (1):333-65.
39. Tong TM, Shaw R, Takeuchi Y. Climate disaster resilience of the
education sector in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam.
Nat Hazard 2012;63:685-709.
40. Mostafawi Darani F, Larijani M, Saeedi M. Investigating the effect
of education on the knowledge and attitude of primary school
principals in Borkhar city regarding the establishment of health
and environmental safety management system. J Health Syst Res
Spec Issue Health Educ 2014;9(14):1889-99.
41. Omidvari S. Lack of a program to cope with crises in schools:
Neglecting mental health problems of survivors of school
disasters. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2017;19:6:1-3.
42. ZAkariaee L, Sepasi Moghaddam H, Najafi M, Farahi zad S,
Kaveh Firouz Z. Evaluate the view of students of 10th overall
maneuver of earthquake and safety in the schools. Journal of
Rescue Relief. 2009;1(3):1‑10.
43. Barjasteh F, Rezaee Z, Zibaee Z. Comparison of the environmental
health and safety status of governmental and non-governmental
primary schools in Kashmar in 2015-2016. J Torbat Heydariyeh
Univ Med Sci 2016;4:38-47.
44. Karbassi AR, Shahpasand M, Rajabi AA, Ghafari HA.
Development of new citizenship HSE model for schools and
kindergartens of Tehran Metropolitan City. Int. J. Huma n Capital
Urban Manage. 2016;1(1):19-30.
45. Poursadeqiyan M, Arefi MF. Health, safety, and environmental
status of Iranian school: A systematic review. J Educ Health
Promot 2020;9:297.
46. Soltaninejad M, Babaei-Pouya A, Poursadeqiyan M, Feiz Arefi
M. Ergonomics factors influencing school education during the
COVID-19 pandemic: A literature review. Work. 2021;68:69-75.
47. Arefi MF, Pouya AB, Poursadeqiyan M. Investigating the
match betwWeen anthropometric measures and the classroom
furniture dimensions in Iranian students with health approach:
A systematic review. J Edu Health Promot 2021;10:38.