Document Type : Original Article



BACKGROUND: In the daily lives of people, the level of anxiety plays a significant role. This applies
to students, who experience anxiety when taking examinations referred to as examination anxiety.
Majority of the current educational institutions have shifted from a traditional evaluation system to one
that is computerized. The present study aim is to identify the computerized examination anxiety (CEA)
among college students in the Faculty of Health and to compare the differences among them based
on study system and gender.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The research is a descriptive quantitative design. The research
population consists of 138 health college students. CEA scale was used to identify the level of
examination anxiety among students. Data were then exposed to analysis, namely the descriptive
statistics, independent sample t‑test, and Chi‑square tests, to obtain the answers to the research
questions at the level of <0.05.
RESULTS: Based on the findings, the CEA experienced by the health students was of moderate
level. The findings also showed insignificant differences between students’ levels of anxiety based
on gender and study system at <0.05 value.
CONCLUSION: The study contributed to literature by adding a study related to CEA during COVID‑19.
The study enumerated implications and recommendations based on the findings.


1. Lu H, Hu Y, Gao J. The effects of computer self‑efficacy, training
satisfaction and test anxiety on attitude and performance
in computerized adaptive testing. Computer Education
2. Patra S, Khan A, Upadhyay M, Sharma R, Rajoura P, Bhasin S.
Module to facilitate self‑directed learning among medical
undergraduate: Development and implementation. Journal of
Education and Health Promotion 2021;9:231.
3. Anderson R, Heesterbeek H, Klinkenberg D, Hollingsworthm T.
How will country‑based mitigation measures influence the course
of the COVID‑19 epidemic? Lancet 2020;395:395‑931.
4. Tandon T, Dubey A, Arora E, Hasan M. Effect of COVID‑19
pandemic lockdown on medical advice seeking and medication
practices of home‑bound non‑COVID patient. J Edu Health
Promot 2021;10:1‑8.
5. Rehman F, Saeed I, Khan N, Shahzad H, Janjua A, Ajmal Z.
Measuring the level of examination anxiety among students in
a private medical college in Lahore. Pakistan Journal of Medical
and Health Scinces 2018;12:184‑7.
6. Duraku Z. Factors influencing test anxiety among university
students. The European Journal of Social and Behavioural Sciences
7. Alammari M, Bukhary D. Factors contributing to prosthodontic
exam anxiety in undergraduate dental students. Adv Med Educ
Pract 2019;10:31‑8.
8. Al‑Samadani K, Al‑Dharrab A. The perception of stress among
clinical dental students. World J Dent 2013;4:24‑8.
9. Fritts B, Marszalek J. Computerized adaptive testing, anxiety
levels, and gender differences. Soc Psychol Educ 2010;13:441‑58.
10. Conole G, Warburton B. A review of computer‑assisted
assessment. Research in Learning Technology 2016 2016;13:17‑31.
11. Bodmann S, Robinson D. Speed and performance differences
among computer‑based and paper‑pencil tests. Journal of
Education Computer Research 2004;31:51‑60.
12. Hochlehnert A, Brass K, Moeltner A, Juenger J. Does medical
students’ preference of test format (computer‑based vs.
paper‑based) have an influence on performance? BMC Med Educ
13. McDonald A. The impact of individual differences on the
equivalence of computer‑based and paper‑and‑pencil educational
assessments. Comput Educ 2002;39:299‑312.
14. Jamil M, Tariq R, Shami P, Zakariys B. Computer‑based vs
paper‑based examinations: Perceptions of university teachers.
Turk Online J Educ Technol 2012;11:371‑81.
15. Prisacari A. Danielson J. Rethinking testing mode: Should I offer
my next chemistry test on paper or computer? Comput Educ
16. Fraenkel J, Wallen N. How to Design and Evaluate Research in
Education. New York, NY: McGraw‑Hill; 2006.
17. Alkhezzi F. The effect of test anxiety on the performance in exams:
A correlational study on Kuwait University Students. Int J Res
Educ 2013;1:20‑31.
18. Mortazavi F, Salehabadi R, Sharifzadeh M, Ghardashi F. Students
perspectives on the virtual teaching challenges in the COVID‑19
pandemic: A qualitative study. Journal of Education and Health
promotion 2021;10:59. [doi: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_861_20].
19. Putwain D. Do examinations stakes moderate the test
anxiety–examination performance relationship? Educ Psychol
20. Pajares F, Miller M. Role of self‑efficacy and self‑concept beliefs
in mathematical problem solving: A path analysis. J Educ Psychol
21. Zeidner M. Test Anxiety: The State of the Art. Switzerland
Springer Science & Business Media; 1998.
22. Cheryan S, Bodenhausen G. When positive stereotypes threaten
intellectual performance: The psychological hazards of “model
minority” status. Psychol Sci 2000;11:399‑402.
23. Aronson J, Fried, C, Good C. Reducing the effects of stereotype
threat on African American College students by shaping theories
of intelligence. J Exp Soc Psychol 2002;38:113‑25.