Document Type : Original Article



BACKGROUND: A large proportion of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) can be prevented by
reducing unhealthy nutrition, inadequate physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The high
burden of NCDs underlines the need for a greater understanding of the causes of these risk factors.
This paper aims to identify factors affecting smoking, alcohol consumption, unhealthy nutrition, and
inadequate physical activity in current and future times.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A scoping review was conducted in Iran University of Medical
Sciences, Tehran, Iran, in 2020 to identify factors affecting smoking, alcohol consumption, unhealthy
nutrition, and inadequate physical activity. The review was guided by the five‑step Arksey and O’Malley
model. A deductive qualitative content analysis was employed to identify the factors synthesized
through descriptive and narrative synthesis. The search was conducted in English without date
restrictions up to January 2020.
RESULTS: We identified 1437 studies through database search and other sources and finally included
72 studies in the review. The content analysis of the data led to the identification of 27 factors affecting
smoking, alcohol consumption, nutrition, and physical activity. The factors categorized into social,
technological, environmental, economic, political, and values factors.
CONCLUSION: Political and economic factors have a significant effect on all risk factors, and it is
necessary to take comprehensive measures to improve these factors. Technological factors have a
greater impact on healthy nutrition. Physical activity is more affected by environmental factors than
other risk factors. However, smoking and alcohol consumption are more influenced by social factors
and individual attitudes.


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