Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences

2 Medical Ethics and History of Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences

3 Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Tehran University of Medical Sciences

4 Department of Psychiatry, Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


BACKGROUND: Observing professional behavior in clinical settings encounters many obstacles.
In this research, the effect of defects of the educational system in observing professional behavior
in clinical settings of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) has been investigated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This qualitative content analysis study was conducted using focused
group discussions in TUMS. Twenty‑two focused group discussions with 182 faculty members,
medical students, and clinical staff were conducted. Conventional content analysis was used to
analyze the data.
RESULTS: One hundred and sixty codes (90 codes from the viewpoint of clinical staff and 70
codes from the viewpoint of faculty members and medical students) were extracted. The codes are
categorized into 4 categories and 17 subcategories. The categories include “educators’ imperfections,”
“inadequate initial training,” “lack of attention to continuous professional education,” and “lack of
passion for professionalism education.”
CONCLUSION: Greater efforts to empower educators, planning for the effectiveness of initial
education, and motivating employees might play a role in promoting the observance of professional
behavior in clinical settings. Professional behavior training should be considered at the entrance into
the system. This education should be strengthened by continuing theoretical and practical training and
addressed by proper supervision. It is also important to focus on attracting the attention of teachers
to their own model role in observing professional behavior by others.


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