Document Type : Original Article


1 Integrative Functional Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran,

2 Health Information Technology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


BACKGROUND: Nowadays, providing access to the required information by clinical informationist (CI)
is vital for clinical teams to make the best decision. This study was carried out to identifying how CIs
should participate in grand round (GR).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current study is an action research study. It was conducted in the
GR sessions of the Gastroenterology department of Al‑Zahra Hospital affiliated with Isfahan University
of Medical Sciences in 2017. Participants included attending physicians, fellowship students of the
Gastroenterology departments, a CI, and two supervising medical librarians. Data were collected
through observation and discussion. Qualitative content analysis and concept mapping were used
for data analysis.
RESULTS: The findings indicated that existing problems were related to the CI, medical team, and
infrastructural ones. The participation of the CI in medical team was arranged based on the following
steps: planning, action, evaluation, and suggestions. It started from an initial diagnosis of patients
and ended in GR meetings. During evaluation step, suggestions were made to remove the existing
problems and in the fifth step, results were summarized and a framework for the participation of the
CI in GR sessions was suggested.
CONCLUSIONS: Medical team members were satisfied with the participation of the CI, but it is
necessary to remove the existing structural and personal barriers (related to the CI and medical
team members), in order to improve the efficiency of this participation.


1. Kadiri JA, Adetro NJ. Information explosion and the challenges
of information and communication technology utilization
in Nigerian libraries information center. Ozean J Soc Sci
2. KlodaLA, BartlettJC. Acharacterization of clinical questions asked
by rehabilitation therapists. J Med Libr Assoc 2014;102:69‑77.
3. AleTaha A. Investigating the Role of Clinical Information’s
Librarian and in Improving the Treatment Process of Patients
in Health Centers in Deprived Regions: Providing a Model for
Long‑ Distance Clinical Information’s Librarian. Kerman: Kerman
University of Medical Sciences; 2011.
4. Zarea Gavgani V, Shokrane F, Roshani‑Shiramin A. Need for
Content Reengineering of the Medical Library and Information
Science Curriculum in Iran. Library Philosophy and Practice;
2011. Available from:
libphilprac/477. [Last accessed on 2016 Dec 29].
5. Davarpanah MR, Aazami M. Information need and information
seeking behavior among nurses: Review of the previous studies.
Res Inf Sci Public Lib 2011;17:427‑53.
6. A‘la M, Khashayar P, Baradaran HR, Larijani B, Aghai HR. Factors
affecting the quality of Endocrine department‘s educational Grand
round from trainees, interns, residents and fellowship students’
perspective. Iran J Diab Metabol 2013;12:160‑66.
7. Atlasi R. A review of the clinical medical librarian’s role in the
evidence based medicine process and improvment of the quality
of medical services with an approach to hospital libraries in the
United States. Natl Stud Lib Inf Org 2009;20:299‑312.
8. Talachi H, Ravaghi H, Ayatollahi H, Atlasi R. The scientific and
practical features of clinical librarians with an emphasis on their
role in the process of evidence‑based medicine: A literature
review. J Health Administ 2012;15:7‑12.
9. Masoudi SH, Sheikh‑Sadabadi E. The need and meaning of
evidence‑based medicine in developing countries. Horizons Med
Educ Develop 2007;2:13‑6.
10. Brettle A, Maden‑Jenkins M, Anderson L, McNally R, Pratchett T,
Tancock J, et al. Evaluating clinical librarian services: A systematic
review. Health Info Libr J 2011;28:3‑22.
11. Perrier L, Farrell A, Ayala AP, Lightfoot D, Kenny T, Aaronson E,
et al. Effects of librarian‑provided services in healthcare settings:
A systematic review. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2014;21:1118‑24.
12. Winning MA, Beverley CA. Clinical librarianship:
A systematic review of the literature. Health Info Libr J
2003;20 Suppl 1:10‑21.
13. As’ adi Shali A, Bagher M. Feasibility of clinical librarian services
in the hospital libraries of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.
J Acad Lib Inf Res 2008;42:113‑38.
14. O’Brien R. An Overview of the Methodological Approach of
Action Research. University of Toronto; 1998. p. 7.
15. Amini M, Sagheb MM, Moghadami M, Shayegh S. The rate of
knowledge and practice of medical residents of shiraz medical
school in regard to evidence‑based medicine. Strides Dev Med
Educ 2007;4:30‑5.
16. Wagner KC, Byrd GD. Evaluating the effectiveness of clinical
medical librarian programs: A systematic review of the literature.
J Med Libr Assoc 2004;92:14‑33.
17. Soleimanzadeh‑Najafi NS, Zare‑Farashbandi E, Moradi R,
Zare‑Farashbandi F. Familirity of medical librarianship students
and librarians with the duties of a clinical librarian. Health Inf
Manag 2017;14:181‑5.
18. Marshall JG, Neufeld VR. A randomized trial of librarian
educational participation in clinical settings. J Med Educ
19. Veenstra RJ, Gluck EH. A clinical librarian program in the
intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 1992;20:1038‑42.
20. Royal M, Grizzle WE, Algermissen V, Mowry RW. The success
of a clinical librarian program in an academic autopsy pathology
service. Am J Clin Pathol 1993;99:576‑81.
21. Lappa E. Clinical Librarianship (CL): A Historical Perspective.
Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship; 2004.
Available from: URL:
v05n02/lappa_e01.htm. [Last accessed on 2017 Nov 15].
22. Shokraneh F. The Clinical Librarian’s Answering Steps to
Emergency Medicine Faculties’ and Residents’ Clinical Questions
in 7th Tir Martyrs Hospital Tehran, Iran. Tehran: Iran University
of Medical Sciences; 2010.
23. Ghaffari S, Masoumi L. A study of hospital librarians’ role in
offering information services to medical specialists, assistants
and medical doctors in Hamedan educational and health centers.
Knowled Stud 2009;2:39‑48.
24. Sarvestani R, Moatari M, Nikbakht A. Guideline of Action
Research (For Senior and Ph. D Students), 2nd ed. Tehran:
Jameenegar, 2014.
25. Pappas C. Hospital librarians’ perceptions related to
evidence‑based health care. J Med Libr Assoc 2008;96:235‑8.
26. Momenzadeh N, Azadeh‑Tafreshi F, Fayyaz‑Bakhsh A,
Khodaei‑Ashan S. The role of Tabriz medical sciences
university hospital librarians in the evidence‑based practice.
J Epidemiol (Library and Information Science and Information
Technology) 2011;3:34‑45.
27. Sladek RM, Pinnock C, Phillips PA. The informationist in
Australia: A feasibility study. Health Info Libr J 2004;21:94‑101.
28. Lappa E. Undertaking an information‑needs analysis of
the emergency‑care physician to inform the role of the
clinical librarian: A Greek perspective. Health Info Libr J
29. Miller N, Kaye D. The experience of a department of
medicine with a clinical medical library service. J Med Educ
30. Swinglehurst DA, Pierce M, Fuller JC. A clinical informationist
to support primary care decision making. Qual Saf Health Care
31. McGowan J, Hogg W, Rader T, Salzwedel D, Worster D, Cogo E,
et al. A rapid evidence‑based service by librarians providedinformation to answer primary care clinical questions. Health
Info Libr J 2010;27:11‑21.
32. Demas JM, Ludwig LT. Clinical medical librarian: The last
unicorn? Bull Med Libr Assoc 1991;79:17‑27.
33. Roach AA, Addington WW. The effects of an information
specialist on patient care and medical education. J Med Educ
34. Esparza JM, Shi R, McLarty J, Comegys M, Banks DE. The effect
of a clinical medical librarian on in‑patient care outcomes. J Med
Libr Assoc 2013;101:185‑91.
35. McKeown S, Konrad SL, McTavish J, Boyce E. Evaluation of
hospital staff’s perceived quality of librarian‑mediated literature
searching services. J Med Libr Assoc 2017;105:120‑31.
36. Tahmasebi M, Adibi P, Zare‑Farashbandi F, Papi A, Rahimi A. The
educational role of clinical informationist on improving clinical
education among medical students: Based on Kirkpatrick model.
J Edu Health Promot 2020;9:28.
37. Zare‑Farashbandi E, Zare‑Farashbandi F, Adibi P, Rahimi A.
Pre‑requisites, barriers and advantages of clinical informationist
participation in grand round: A qualitative study. Health Inf Lib
J 2019;37:143‑51.
38. Zare‑Farashbandi E, Rahimi A, Adibi P, Zare‑Farashbandi F.
Involving clinical librarians in clinical settings: Skills, roles,
advantages and barriers. J Hosp Lib 2019;19:144‑5.